Biographical Dictionary of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara

By Michael W. Stevens

Fort Berthold Library

New Town, North Dakota

c2003

 

 

--A--

Arketarnawhar
  • Arikara
  • mid 1700's-1806
  • Chief

Arketarnawhar or Ankedouchera traveled with Lewis and Clark back to Washington, DC in 1805.  He died while there on April 7, 1806.  The following year President Jefferson sent his condolences and presents with Ensign Nathaniel Pryor who escort Mandan Chief Sheheke back to the Missouri River villages.

 

--B--

Bad Bear
  • Arikara
  • -
  • Chief

He was one of the Chiefs representing and signing the Arikara  Treaty of 1825 (also called the Atkinson & O'Fallon Trade Treaty) with representatives of the United States. Others present:  Bloody Hand, Little Bear, Skunk, Fool Chief, and Chief That Is Afraid along with a number of warriors. In this treaty, the Arikara acknowledged the supremacy of the United States, which in turn promised them its protection. The Arikara  agreed not to trade with anyone but authorized American citizens and to use United States law to handle injury of American citizens by Indians and vice versa.

Bad Gun

SEE Charging Eagle

Baker, Anson
worked for the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) at the Area office in Aberdeen SD; the Rosebud Sioux Reservation; the Pine Ridge Sioux Reservation; and the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation (Assiniboian, Gros Ventre and Sioux). My father was very successful in his career and was Superintendent for the Crow Tribe and the Blackfoot Tribe as well as Area Director for the Billings Area before he retired.
Baker, Paige J.

 

Pennsylvania State University- Education Administration
Bear, Floyd
  • Arikara
  • b. 1874 - 1926
  • Hereditary Chief

 

 

Floyd Bear or Nishu which means Arrow was born to the hereditary Awahu Chief Sitting Bear and Black Calf Woman in 1874.  Following in his father's footsteps he became Chief and was known for getting a military pension for the nine last remaining Arikara Scouts.  Harry Gillette would succeed as Chief until Floyd's son Robert Bear was old enough to take his position as hereditary Chief.

Bear, Robert Sr.
  • Arikara
  • b. 1936-1961
  • Hereditary Chief

Robert Bear Sr. or Neetaan Taka Ta which means Yellow Tail was born on Christmas in 1901 to Floyd Bear and Rachel Wolf (Hidatsa).  In 1925 he married Dora Hopkins and together they raised 12 children.  Robert was a member of the Dead Grass Society and known for his generosity and hospitality.  He became the hereditary Chief in 1947 with the passing of his uncle Harry Gillette.

Bear Chief
  • Arikara
  • late 1700's - 1867
  • Hereditary Chief

Bear Chief or kuunNx tee shan which means Iron Bear was born in the late 1700's in the western Grand River Arikara village.  As a young man he was chosen to be a war Chief and was one of three Arikara delegates that signed the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty and also became a Treaty Chief. The other delegates were Mad Bear and  Young Eagle Chosen. Bear Chief passed on in1867.

Bear Eye

" The Washburn Times spoke in one of it’s early issues of a certain Bear Eye, whom it disparagingly referred to as "a gentleman of intelligent leisure, who, with his squaw and several papooses, is temporarily residing in a hole in the ground down at the landing." Dispite this tone of amused contempt, the editor had to acknowledge Bear Eye’s abilities. When a white man gashed his hand severely and no doctor could be found, the Indian took over and bandaged the wound efficiently and with apparent success".

Bear's Arm
  • Hidatsa
  • 1864-?
  • Informant

Bear's Arm was a Hidatsa born about 1864 to Old-Woman-Crawling at the Awatixa village.   At the age of about eighteen while away from his village he spotted a Dakota war party and returned to warn his village and lead a war party out to defend against the war party. He was also an owner of the Eagle-Trapping rights which gave the right to set up eagle trapping pits, where he would hide until an eagle took the bait and he would grab the eagle and take feathers. He was known for his knowledge of Hidatsa culture and his door was always open for visitors.  Many late night sessions were spent with visitors and elders glad to find one of the younger generation willing to listen to stories of the old times.  For this reason the famed ethnologist, Alfred Bowers selected Bear's Arm as one of his informants while researching the Hidatsa.

Bear’s Belly
  • Arikara
  • 1847-aft. 1912
  • Indian Scout

 Bear's Belly or ku'nuh kana'nu was born in 1847 at Ft. Clark. His first war experience was at the age of nineteen he enlisted at Ft. Abraham Lincoln with Custer's 7th Cavalry and was deployed to Black Hills country. During this campaign they ran into a small camp of Sioux where he was able to count (2) first coups and (1) second coup. Upon his return home Bear's Belly fasted and cut skin offerings to a buffalo skull alter on the outskirts of the village. In the same year Bear's Belly married and later became a member of the Bears medicine fraternity.  To fulfill one of the needs of being a member he sought  to get a bear skin.  The following is a narration of his quest:

"Needing a bear-skin in my medicine-making, I went, at the season when the leaves were turning brown, into the White Clay hills. All the thought of my heart that day was to see a bear and kill him. I passed an eagle-trap, but did not stop: it was a bear I wanted, not an eagle. Coming suddenly to the brink of a cliff I saw below me three bears. My heart wished to go two ways: I wanted a bear, but to fight three was hard. I decided to try it, and, descending, crept up to within forty yards of them, where I stopped to look around for a way of escape if they charged me. The only way out was by the cliff, and as I could not climb well  in moccasins I removed them. One bear was standing with his side toward me, another was walking slowly toward him on the other side. I waited until the second one was close to the first, and pulled the trigger. The farther one fell; the bullet had passed through the body of one and into the brain of the other. The wounded one charged, and I ran, loading my rifle, then turned and shot again, breaking his backbone. He lay there on the ground only ten paces from me, and I could see his face twitching. A noise caused me to remember the third bear, which I saw rushing upon me only six or seven paces away. I was yelling to keep up my courage, and the bear was growling in his anger. He rose on his hindlegs, and I shot, with my gun nearly touching his chest. He gave a howl and ran off. The bear with the broken back was dragging himself about with his forelegs, and I went to him and said, , I came looking for you to be my friend, to be with me always.' Then I reloaded my gun and shot him . through the head. His skin I kept, but the other two I sold." [Curtis, North American Indian, v.5 p.178]

Another story of hunting bear:

"One Fall Red Star and Bear's Belly went out hunting bear. They tracked one bear to the river and across the sand up to a cut bank cave. They went to the entrance and looked in but could not stir him. Bear's Belly went up the bank to the other entrance and seeing the bear's head shot at him. He sank out of sight and the two men crawled into the den about eight feet and began poking him to find out whether he was dead or alive. At last they found him dead, Bear's Belly and Red Star had a hard time dragging him out of the cave because he was very heavy. Bear's Belly took the head and skin to use in a ceremonial dance. In order to use this skin he had to drag it home by means of thongs fastened to his own flesh. Red Star cut two gashes in Bear's Belly's back and fastened the rawhide thongs as done in the Sun Dance. Red Star went on ahead after doing this for his companion and left him to drag the hide painfully the whole way home. When Red Star reached camp he told the old men that Bear's Belly was dragging the hide into the camp, and several of them went out to help him whenever his load got caught on anything. He did not make it to camp intil the next night." [Libby, Arikara Narrative, p.199]

His next tour of duty was with the Custer Surveying expedition in June of 1875.  The expedition was responsible for finding gold in the Black Hills close to the Shell River, and the ensuing gold rush. In August of 1912, nine survivors of some forty members of the Arikara Scouts came together at Bear's Belly home at Armstrong on the Ft. Berthold Reservation to tell their stories to the secretary of the State Historical Society.

Bear's Teeth
  • Arikara
  • b. ?
  • Chief

Bear's Teeth or KuuNUxaánu’ was an Arikara Chief ca. 1881.  Photographed by famed photographer Edward Curtis.  He is described as a member of the Night order of the medicine fraternity.

 

 

 
Beauchamp, Peter H.
  • Arikara
  • 1877-1960
  • Tribal Chairman

Peter Beauchamp or Sitting Bull was born on June 15, 1877,  to Peter "Pierre" Beauchamp (Frenchman with the American Fur Company) and Woman Goes Out (daughter of Sahnish Chief White Shield) on the Fort Berthold Reservation.  Peter grew-up at Like-a-Fishhook Village. On June 15, 1898 he was taken with a group of pupils escorted by Anna Dawson to Hampton Institute in Virginia. After completing school in January of 1902 Peter made his home in Nishu and married Adeline Z. Powell (a  school teacher at Shell Creek).  He was elected to the tribal council and served as the Chairman from 1942 - 1944.  Peter was fluent in both Sahnish and English languages which served the people well as a tribal representative.  Of his notable accomplishments was securing pensions for 148 Arikara Scouts and dispatchers, who served/worked  with the United States government.  Peter also organized the Old Scout Society and facilitated the creation of the original Old Scout Cemetery at Like-a-Fishhook Village.  He traveled to Washington, D.C. on a number of occasions to seek the return of land taken from the Three Affiliated Tribes by the government.  He also worked in a number of different professions such as a road foreman. Indian Court Judge, rancher/farmer, and Superintendent of the Sahnish Congregational Sunday School at White Shield, ND.  He was actively involved in church affairs and became a minister in the Congregational Church.  Peter Beauchamp lived to the age of 83 and died on August 29, 1960.

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002., p140.

 

Big White

SEE Sheheke

Bird Bear

Worked a Government Herder on the Fort Berthold Reservation.

Bird Bear, Roger
  • -
  • b.
  • Tribal Councilman

 

 

 
Bird Bear, Thomas
  •  -
  • b.
  • Tribal Councilman / Attorney

 

"I grew up here on the reservation, from a farming and ranching background. I joined the service and went into the U.S. Army after high school. I attended college, and graduated with a bachelor of arts degree in philosophy from the University of North Dakota. I have a law degree from the law school there at the University. And today, I'm a licensed attorney and an attorney-at-law."

Birds Bill

"Chief of the U.S. Volunteer Scouts Society"

Black Cat
  • Mandan
  • b. mid 1700’s
  • Principle Chief
 

Black Cat or Posecopsahe was born in the mid 1700's.  He was the principle chief of the upper Mandan (Roo-Tar-hee or Nuptadi) village thought to be located on the eastern side of the Missouri River across  from Stanton, N.D. and just to the North of the present-day Coal Creek Power Generating Plant.  Black Cat was the principle Chief when the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804-1805 came up the Missouri River to his village.    On October 28th, 1804 helped them them select a site for a Fort or winter camp close to his village.  Later that fall on November 15, 1804, Black cat brought the Assiniboin Chief Chechank (Old Crane) to meet them and receive gifts.  About this same time the Americans witnessed an  "adoption" ritual between the Mandan and the visiting Assiniboin that temporary smoothed relations to the atmosphere of good trade.  He became a regular visitor to the Americans and often exchanged gifts. Lewis & Clark gave Black Cat a number of battle axes, fish hooks and ribbon.  On February 8, 1805, Black Cat gave to Captain Lewis a highly prized elkhorn bow & a number of arrows that would be sent to U.S. President Jefferson and is today in the Peabody MuseumOn the Expedition's return from the Pacific Coast they tried to pursued Black Cat to accompany them east, but declined the dangerous journey into Sioux country.  After Lewis returned he wrote in his journal:

"This man possesses more integrity, firmness, inteligence and perspicuety of mind than any indian I have met with in this quarter, and I think with a little management he may be made a usefull agent in furthering the views of our government."

He became a friend to the Americans and although extended his hospitality to the British in 1806 he flew the American flag that the Lewis & Clark had given him during their visit.

Black Chest
  • -
  • -
  • U.S. Scout

"old U.S. Volunteer Scout"
 

Black Eagle

He was an Indian Court Judge at the beginning of the reservation period at Fort Berthold.

 

Sources:

Bowers, Alfred W.  Hidatsa social and ceremonial organization. 9; U.S. Government Printing Office, c1965.

 

Black Fox
  • Arikara
  • 1857-
  • U.S. Indian Scout

Black Fox was born in 1857.  He enlisted as a U.S. Indian Scout on May 9, 1876 and attained the rank of private.   In 1875, he traveled to Washington, D.C. as a delegate representing the Arikara of Fort Berthold Agency.  The U.S. Government, in it's preparation for  a war expedition into the Little Big Horn country against the Dakota.  The Cheyenne and Arapaho sought the support of the Fort Berthold tribes. Meanwhile Charging Eagle was against the whole idea and managed to delay the Little Big Horn expedition for a year.  Also attending the meeting where: Mandan, Dance-Flag, Running Face, and Charging Eagle, Chas Packenau (interpreter) ; Arikara; Son-Of-Star, Bullhead, Peter Beauchamp (interpreter).  Black Fox was buried at Holy Family Catholic cemetery.

[See photo]

Black Moccasin
  •  Hidatsa
  • b. abt. 1732 - 1832
  • Chief

Black Moccasin or Omp-se-hara (Blackens Moccasin) was born about 1732.  He became the Chief of the Awatixa Hidatsa (sometimes referred to as the Minatare) of the Metaharta  village (middle) on the Knife River.  He is mentioned in the journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition as attending a council  between the chiefs and the expedition on October 29th, 1804.  At this time he received a Peace Medal from Lewis & Clark.  Also in the Lewis and Clark journals we find the following entry for November, 25th, 1804 :

"spent the evening with the black mockersons the Prince .  Cheif of the Vilage grosventres".

We also find another entry by Clark dating November 25, 1805:

"we were Visited by the Sho Inds and a number of others  those Chiefs gave us Some meat which they packed on their wives. .."

In the summer of 1832, when artist George Catlin came to the Knife River villages, Black Moccasin was of the few who remembered Lewis & Clark and asked Catlin to: "carry his regards to Clark in St. Louis".   Black Moccasin died in 1832 at 100 years of age.

Black Shield
  • Hidatsa
  • Chief

 

Established a village in 1839 a few miles below the future Fort Berthold or Like-a-fishhook village.

Bloody Hand

SEE -- Star

Bloody Knife
  • Arikara-Dakota
  • 1840-1876
  • US. Indian Scout

 

 Bloody Knife or Nes-i-ri-pat was born about 1840, in the area of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in what is today North Dakota. His father was a Hunkpapa Dakota and his mother an Arikara. In his early years he was abused by the other boys (but mostly by Gall) his age because of his mixed Arikara/Dakota blood. Then Bloody Knife's mother finally had enough and left the Hunkpapa in 1856 with her three sons and returned home to her own people. She left behind with her husband Bloody Knife's sister. Bloody Knife returned to visit his father in 1860 at the mouth of the Rosebud river. When he arrived he would have been welcomed if it wasn't for his boyhood enemy, Gall who was a member of the Soldier band with great influence. Instead, he was beaten, striped, and chased out of the camp. In 1862 his two younger brother's were caught and killed while out on a hunting party by a war party led by Chief Gall (Bloody Knife's lifelong enemy).

During the Civil War the upper Missouri forts were left  with skeleton crews to protect the peaceful village people.  The Dakota during this time took over the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara hunting grounds and the village tribes did not venture too far from their fortified villages.   At the end of the Civil War Gen. Sully's Northwestern Indian Expedition of 1865 failed to find these hostile Dakota as he marched his troops throughout North Dakota. During this time  Bloody Knife served as a scout for Sully and was assigned to Company C, of the 4th. Cavalry. In the Fall he followed a Dakota trail through the Little Missouri Badlands, to the Powder River. They returned unsuccessful and were relieved in October of 1865. Also that year  Bloody Knife took a wife named She Owl.

That same winter Gall, who had become a Chief came with four lodges of Hunkpapa Dakota to Ft. Berthold and encamped in the willows south of the Fort. They came to offer a peace alliance and were allowed to camp. Bloody Knife saw Gall and went immediately to the  ranking officer and informed that Gall had killed many white's and was trouble maker. The officer agreed to send troops with Bloody Knife to arrest Gall.  They reached Gall's camp as he was exiting his tipi and  was bayoneted in the chest by a soldier. The officer pronounced him dead, but Bloody Knife wasn't happy with yet and was about to shoot him when a lieutenant pushed the gun aside.  Gall's family quickly bound his wounds.

The next year Bloody Knife carried the mail on horseback between Ft. Totten and the western forts, through the hunting grounds claimed by the hostile eastern Dakota (Dakota who moved west after the Minnesota Massacre of 1862).  Carriers were so often killed by the Dakota that it was hard to find replacements.

Late spring of 1868 Bloody Knife and Red Legs were suspected of killing an old trapper by the name of La Franc for his furs.  That same spring on May 1st 1868, Bloody Knife enlisted on his first hitch (of eleven) as an Indian Scout at Ft. Stevenson. He was issued a Springfield 50/70 caliber Army rifle. Which was soon replace by a 50 cal. lever action 7 shot carbine. Among the scouts favorite duties was carrying mail, courier service, and guiding search parties for deserted soldiers.

After 1872, Fort Abraham Lincoln was established to protect  railroad construction crews building a rail line across North Dakota.  In next year 7th U.S. Cavalry, led by Col. George A. Custer, moved there and it became the most important fort in the Dakota Territory.  Bloody Knife & a number of other Arikara enlisted as scouts.  Bloody Knife was made Chief of these Indian Scouts.

9; Sept. 30th 1868, Blood Knife deserted and was not seen intil Feb. 4, 1869 when he led a scalping party on a 2 dead Dakota reported killed by Yellowstone Kelly. Afterwards the scalp dance carried on for days. On May 21, 1869 Bloody Knife re-enlisted at Ft. Buford and again on Feb. 18, 1870. He was discharged Aug. 18, 1870 and didn’t re-enlist until Sept. 30, 1870. On Dec. 28, 1870 his daughter died of an unspecified disease. In 1872 he was made a Corporal at Ft. Buford.

[Summer 1873, After being discharged from a six month enlistment at Ft. Lincoln as a Scout, Bloody Knife went on a drunk and while crossing on a Missouri Ferry got into an fight with the ferrymen and an Orderly Sergeant. The Sergeant tried to shot Bloody Knife but missed. The group of Indians left the ferry and when Bloody Knife reached the hill top he fired on the ferry]NDHQV.4#3.

[In 1873, he was chosen to scout for Gen. David S. Stanley's Yellowstone Expedition, that escorted the Northern Pacific Survey and exploring the Yellowstone river. [He took part in the fight against the hostile Sioux on that expedition.] On this campaign he served the newly-arrived Seventh Cavalry so well, that Lieut. Colonel George A. Custer induced him to transfer to his own command at Ft. Abraham Lincoln as Corporal of the Indian Scouts for the Black Hills Expedition of 1874.

He enlisted at Ft. Lincoln on May 30, 1874 for six months with the Black Hills Expedition spending July and August exploring the Black Hills. This was his last enlistment for Custer hired him as a civilian scout and guide for the fatal campaign against the Sioux in 1876. Bloody Knife was placed under Custer's command for the Black Hills Expedition, along with 100 other Arikara and Crow scouts. By the time they had reached the Black Hills almost all of the other scouts turned back for home fearing a Dakota attack. Bloody Knife remained. It was during this period that a great friendship developed between Bloody Knife and Custer. As a sign of their friendship he gave Bloody Knife a "starred" Handkerchief, an engraved silver medal, and promised to bring him to Washington D.C. after he won his next battle. [He was discharged on November 30, 1874, upon expiration of his six month service, as a Private of excellent and reliable character.

[One of his weaknesses was an inborn cruelty, and Custer recited an instance of this in his expedition to the Black Hills, 1874. In making a detour to behold a cave with promised wonders, they found a lonely old Sioux, and took him prisoner. Bloody Knife demanded his right to kill and scalp his old enemy-as he called in his own way. The General demurred, and the scout in a angry mood took the sulks and refused to be comforted. He dropped to the rear and rode alone the balance of the day, in dramatic humility and disgust.}N.D.H.Q.V. # 3

[Late in the Autumn of 1875, Bloody Knife had just returned from a hunting expedition and met the writer_________? The writer was asked by Bloody Knife. to join him in a hunting party into the Painted Woods area.

[On, March 13, 1876 he was employed by the regimental Quartermaster of the Seventh Cavalry for duty as a civilian guide for the Sioux Expedition into the Montana territory was then being assembled at Ft. Lincoln. On May 17th, the troops & scouts were paraded inside of Ft. Lincoln. They traveled west toward the Yellowstone river. They camped for 5 days on the Little Missouri while a scouting party was sent upriver to look for signs of the hostile. camped at the mouth of the Rosebud and broke camp at 12:00 noon on the May 22, 1876

[Still on the Rosebud, but on the main Indian trail on the night of the 23rd. They spent the entire next day on the Rosebud until about 9:00 pm (Bloody Knife and a few other scouts were in the camp this night) when the Crow scouts returned with information. They quickly saddled up and rode all night till morning. On the morning of the 25th. they dismounted in a ravine on the west slope of divide between Rosebud and Little Big Horn and made coffee and rested.

(MORE INFO ON CAMPS AND JOURNEY)

until they reached the Little Big Horn country. The scouts soon realized and warned the Generals of the great number of Dakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho. In the afternoon of June 25, 1876, the scouts had sighted the huge camp and prepared to attack. Custer divided his forces and sent Major Reno's advance battalion and the Arikara scouts along the western(left) flank(bank) of the Little Big Horn river.

[On the day of the battle BLOODY KNIFE wore the black handkerchief with white stares(given by Custer) and a necklace with a bear's claw and a clam shell attached to it.

(abandoned teepee’s)

After they burned the teepees a number of the enemy where spotted on the bluffs above the valley. The Capt. Tom Custer's men, Bloody Knife and Curly(Crow Scout) gave chase but found nothing.

?from here they rode down the hill and attacked the village

Reno's Battalion advanced up the river valley with increasing resistance. The firefight got too thick so Reno ordered his troops to the bluffs. Custer also ordered the scouts to capture the enemies horses. As the scouts neared the huge camp, they split into two groups. Bloody Knife led one group towards the camp, and the other group turned toward the trees where there where many horses.

The battalion was fired on at Reno creek so they took shelter in a grove of cottonwoods and watered their horses. Bloody knife and Major Reno were talking when a Dakota bullet hit Bloody Knife in the head, splattering blood all over Reno.

The results of the ensuing battle are etched in history as one of the U.S. Army's worst defeats. After the battle, Bloody Knife's body was scalped and decapitated. Two young girls brought his head to their mother in the camp where she recognized it as her brother's and exclaimed "Gall finally got him!" [Two days after the battle Young Hawk was in the deserted camp of the Sioux looking for abandoned meat supplies. A soldier, carrying a scalp he had found mounted on a stick, asked Young Hawk if this was a Dakota Scalp. Young Hawk took one look and recognized the gray streaked hair of Bloody Knife.] The remains of Bloody Knife where probably interned in the valley on June 27 or 28 by Col. John Gibbon's me. After Bloody Knife's death his wife, She Owl came to Ft. Berthold on April 14, 1879 to claim his back pay of $91.66.

 

Bob Tail Bull
  • Mandan/Hidatsa

  • 1834 - 1901
  • US. Indian Scout

Bob Tail Bull, born in 1834 was a member of the Awatixa Hidatsa proper band and was a prominent Sub chief under  Chief Crows Flies High. He was also keeper of the Waterbuster clan bundle and co-owner of the Earthnaming Bundle.  He was also a leader of the Black Mouth Society.  Bob Tail Bull helped lead the Hushga Band of Crows Flies High of Hidatsa and Mandan fleeing the imposition of "white" education, governance, and loss of traditional life. He returned with the Band in 1894.  He died at the age of 67 in 1901. [see photo]

Buffalo Bird Woman
  • Hidatsa
  • abt.1839-1932
  • Informant / Interpreter

 

Buffalo Bird Woman (Mahidiweash or Maxidiwiac) was born at the Awatixa Hidatsa village on the Knife River to Hidatsa Chief Small Ankle and Want-to-be-a-woman (Weahtee) about 1839. Her childhood was name was Good Way.  She was born into the Prairie Chicken clan of her mother and was a Water-Buster clan child of her father. She would be raised in a large family her father who married four sisters and the grandparents that also lived with them.  Her brothers were Wolf Chief, Bearstail, Flies Low, Red Kettle and Full Heart, and a sister named Cold Medicine.  The Hidatsa and Mandan were devastated by the Small-pox epidemic of 1837 and in an effort to find a safer home from the increasing attacks of their enemies the Dakota the two tribes moved North on the Missouri River when Buffalo Bird Woman  was about four years old to establish Like-a-fishhook Village.  At the age of six her mother died from small-pox and her grandmother Turtle raised her her.  About 1866 she marriage a man named Magpie, but the marriage only lasted about a year.  Magpie passed away a year later from lung sickness.  Before 1869 she married a Mandan named Son-of-Star and son had their only child named Goodbird. Buffalo Bird Woman was know as an active woman who often had her morning cook fire started before anyone else. About 1885, tribal members where force to accept individual allotments or homesteads and the family moved to the Independence Hill area.  In 1906 anthropologist and Presbyterian minister Gilbert Wilson came to recorded the stories and attitudes to the great changes she had seen during her lifetime.   Her son  Edward Goodbird or Tsa-ka-ka-sa-ki served as their interpreter for twelve years. The result of was a trilogy of books that captured the life and culture of the Hidatsa before the reservation period.  His writings centered on the agricultural techniques used by the Hidatsa and she was know as an expert.  The freindship that became of this endeavor brought Buffalo Bird Woman to honor Wilson by adopting him into her Prairie Chicken clan in 1909.  She was remembered as having a keen memory, being a modest, hard working mother that never wanted to learned English and remained true to her culture & ways.   Maxidiwiac passed on in 1932. 

 

Bull Neck
  • Arikara
  • b. 1836 -

Bull Neck or Hukos-tatinu was born in 1836.

"Born in 1836. His first experience in war he gained at the age of sixteen, when with a party of six others he floated down the Missouri to what is now South Dakota. They succeeded in running off some horses for a Sioux encampment, and Bull Neck, the youngest of the seven, was charged with the duty of driving them home, while the others returned afoot on the other side of the river. His second experience came while on another expedition down the Missouri. Four Sioux horses were captured, and three of the party turned back with the spoils, but the remaining four, of whom Bull Neck was one, went on southward into a region of heavy timber, where more Sioux horses were taken. On another down-river raid, about twenty-five Arikara, camping one night among the trees, heard the neighing of a horse. They prepared to fight, believing the Sioux were upon them. Bull Neck went out to make a reconnaissance and found a stray horse. The party proceeded on its way and came to a camp of wood-cutters providing fuel for the river steamboats. One of the white men, speaking in Arikara, told them of a nearby camp of Sioux, and the war-party, having found the enemy, made an attack. One Sioux and two Arikara were killed. Bull Neck participated in numerous encounters with the same enemy, some of them being engagements of his own seeking, others the result of attacks upon the Fort Berthold village. He counted a first coup in a winter campaign. Bull Neck was a Buffalo medicine-man in the medicine fraternity." Curtis, North American Indian, p.178-79

 

Bullhead
  • Arikara
  • b. bef 1855 -

In 1875, he was chosen as a delegate to represent the three tribes of the Fort Berthold Agency in Washington, D.C.  The U.S. Government was planning a war expedition into the Little Big Horn country against the Dakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho and wanted the support of the Fort Berthold tribes. Charging Eagle opposed the idea and managed to delay the expedition for a year. Others attending the meeting where: Mandan, Dance-Flag, Running Face, and Charging Eagle, Chas Packenau (interpreter) ; Arikara; Son-Of-Star, Bullhead, Black Fox, Peter Beauchamp (interpreter).

Bulls Eye
  • Hidatsa
  • b. 1864 - 1928
  • Chief / Scout

 

Bulls Eye was born in 1864 to Lean Bull and Otter Woman.  He was a volunteer scout and served on the Yellowstone and was with General Armstrong Custer at Fort Abraham Lincoln. Bulls Eye succeeded Long Bear as chief in 1912 and served as Chief until he died in 1928.

 

--C--

Charging Eagle
  • Mandan

  • b. 1829 - aft. 1900

  • Chief

 

 

Charging Eagle was born in 1829 to the famous Mandan Chief Four Bears and Brown Woman (Mandan) at Fort Clark. He spent his first eight years growing up in the Ft. Clark village that his grandfather Suk-shi (Good Boy) had established. Throughout his youth he went by the name of Bad Gun, which was given to him by his grandfather.  Charging Eagle's parents died in the 1837 Small-pox Epidemic that devastated the tribes of the region. Thereafter Charging Eagle and his two sisters went to live with their relative Blue Bug and her husband Entrails (Hidatsa) in the Hidatsa village on the Knife River. The next summer they moved to the Rock village and across the river to the Village of the Perished Children the year after.  At the age of ten, Charging Eagle became a warrior defending his village against a Dakota attack. By 1845, he was living at Like-a-Fishhook village.  In 1850, he received hunting and war medicines, which he wore in his hair for good luck. Charging Eagle also joined the age-grade societies of the Black Mouth’s and Buffalo Societies. He later sold his rights to the Black Mouths to obtain his father's sacred robe that was painted with a rainbow and used in the rain making ceremonies. In 1852, Charging Eagle participated in his first Naxpike or Sun Dance. He was pierced through the chest and hung over a cliff all night  in the "old way" taught to him by Good-Furred-Robe.  He would take part in the Naxpike six more times in his lifetime.  By 1859, Bad Gun had earned the name of Charging Eagle after taking an enemy scalp in battle.   There were many interpretations of his name such as: Flying Eagle, Running Eagle, Rushing Eagle, and Eagle that pursues the Eagle.  Today the most used interpretation is Charging Eagle.  On July 27, 1866, Charging Eagle signed the Agreement at Ft. Berthold under Red Buffalo Cow as the second chief of the Mandan. In 1875, he was chosen as a delegate to represent the three tribes of the Fort Berthold Agency in Washington, D.C.  The U.S. Government was planning a war expedition into the Little Big Horn country against the Dakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho and wanted the support of the Fort Berthold tribes. Charging Eagle opposed the idea and managed to delay the expedition for a year. Others attending the meeting where: Mandan, Dance-Flag and Running Face, Chas Packenau (interpreter) ; Arikara; Son-Of-Star, Bullhead, Black Fox, Peter Beauchamp (interpreter).  It was at this time that Charging Eagle married a Hidatsa woman named Woman-in-the-water.  In 1878, Charging Eagle was made Chief of the Working Band.  He also served as a lieutenant in the U.S. Indian Police Service from August 11, 1881 to June 30, 1883 taking a one month break in July 1882. He eventually became a Judge for the Court of Indian Offenses and served in this capacity between 1881 and 1886. It was about this time that the Fort Berthold Indian Agent, William Courtenay described him as "of unquiet temper and restless tongue". In 1897, he took his allotment and moved to the Little Missouri area to be close to his sons during his latter years. In 1898, Charging Eagle, Poor Wolf and Wounded Face requested from the Government that they be able to visit Washington, D.C. to delegate just compensation for lands taken during the building of the railroad through the reservation. In his remembrance, many landmarks bear his name: Charging Eagle Bay on Lake Sakakawea, Charging Eagle District, and as one of the Chiefs  remembered on the Four Bears Bridge bears.

 

Chief That Is Afraid
  • Arikara
  • b. bef. 1800 -
  • Chief

 

He was one of the Chiefs representing and signing the Arikara  Treaty of 1825 (also called the Atkinson & O'Fallon Trade Treaty) with representatives of the United States. Others present:  Bloody Hand, Little Bear, Skunk, Fool Chief,  and Bad Bear along with a number of warriors. In this treaty, the Arikara acknowledged the supremacy of the United States, which in turn promised them its protection. The Arikara  agreed not to trade with anyone but authorized American citizens and to use United States law to handle injury of American citizens by Indians and vice versa.

Conklin, El Marie
  • -
  • b.
  • Chief Tribal Judge/Lawyer

 

El Marie Conklin graduated from the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks, ND with a law Degree.  She became an Attorney at Law.  Served on the Committee on Tribal and State Court Affairs.  She also served as the Tax Commissioner and Chief Judge of Tribal Court of the Three Affiliated Tribes.

 

 

Cross, Martin
  •  Mandan, Hidatsa, Crow, Sahnish)
  • b. 1906-1964
  • Tribal Chairman / NDCIA & President

Martin Thomas Old Dog, Sr. was born on May 8th, 1906 to Chief Old Dog and  Many Dances. He was sent off to the Indian boarding schools at Flandreau, SD and Wahpeton, ND.  In 1942 he changed the family name from Old Dog to Cross. Martin Cross was a fluent speaker of Hidatsa and Mandan which would serve him well as a representative of the Three Affiliated Tribes. He served on the Tribal council for three terms; 1944-1946,1950-1952, and 1952-1956.    He was a member of the American Legion.  In the 1950's he was a founder and 1st President  of the North Dakota Council of Indian Tribes.   He was among the original founders of the National Congress of American Indians and served as their Vice President in 1953 In 1954 he was elected to the executive council of National Council of American Indians.  Martin also fought the creation of the Garrison Dam and the inundation of reservation lands for the Pick-Sloan project.  Also during his political life he fought against the impending termination movement in the mid-1950's to dissolve Indian reservations as sovereign political entities. Martin T. Cross passed on April 7th, 1964.

"This is not the first time that public interest has sought to acquire the lands of the Fort Berthold Indians. It has been done before in the 1866 treaty which opened the territory for railroads, and by subsequent Executive Orders of 1870 and 1880, which reduced some more of our territory without our consent, until now we have only 600,000 acres left of the original 9,000,000 acres. Is that not depreciation enough? No. The public demands some more."
From testimony of Martin Cross, Hidatsa
April 30, 1949
Washington, D.C

 

Sources:

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.128, 140-41.

Crow Chief
  • Mandan / Arikara
  • b. ca 1810 - aft 1837
  • Head Chief

Crow Chief or Ke-ka-nu-mak-shi was born to a Mandan Chief and an Arikara woman ca. 1810.  His early years where spent in the Grand River Arikara villages and the Platte River region fro 1833 to 1836.  About 1936 he returned to his father's people, at the High Mandan village on the Knife River.  On his return he was appointed as their Head Chief.   (Loundsberry, 1901, p. 434).

 

Crow Ghost
  • Arikara
  • b. 1843

Crow Ghost or Kaka-neksanu was born in 1843.

"Born in 1843 near the present Washburn, North Dakota. At the age of seventeen he accompanied a war-party, and himself killed a Sioux. This gave him the right to assume his father's name Crow Ghost, and in the following year, having proved himself a man, he took a wife. He counted two first coups and several secondary ones. In the Sun Dance he fasted four days and four nights, and on the last night an old man appeared to him in a vision and said that in order to gain his desires he must sacrifice his flesh to the sun. Awaking, Crow Ghost had one of the older men cut a piece of flesh from his shoulder, and offered it to the sun."

Crow Paunch
  • Hidatsa
  • ca 1818-1896
  • Chief

Crow Paunch was born about 1818 to Twisted Wood and  was member of the Prairie Chicken Clan and a child of the Knife clan of Awatixa Hidatsa.  He succeeded Hidatsa Chief Four Bears as Chief.    His mark is also noted  representing the Hidatsa on the  the Horse Creek Treaty of 1851.  The Treaty signing took place near present-day Ft. Laramie Wyoming.  Crow Paunch also purchased the the right to participate in the Hide Beating or Nax'pike' Ceremony from his father.  In 1872 he was photographed by Morrow.  Around 1869 Crow Paunch and Poor Wolf were involved in a dispute with Chief Crows Flies High that indicate caused the former to leave the reservation for a new village  near Fort Buford with his Hushga Band.  Crow Paunch served as Chief from 1861 until his death in 1896.  He is one of the Chiefs honored on a memorial plaque on the Four Bears Bridge.

Crows Breast
  • Hidatsa
  • abt. 1816 - aft. 1870
  • Chief

Crow's Breast was born about 1820 probably at the Knife River villages near present-day Bismarck, ND.  He was a member of the Tamisik clan.  Of his early life not much is documented.  In the winter of 1856 Sir George Gore, the eighth Boronet, of Manor Gore, Country Danegel, Ireland, who wit Kit Carson came to the Upper Missouri region  to hunt and visited with Crow's Breast.   On Sept. 20, 1858 Crow's Breast is documented as holding a Goose Medicine Ceremony at Fort Atkinson to assure the return of the geese in the coming spring  Also in attendance  was Poor Wolf, Bear Hunter and other members of the band. (NDH, v.33:2)   In 1864,Chief Crows Breast refused to join the Dakota in their war against the Americans.  Crow's Breast was listed a Head Chief representing the Hidatsa on an unratified Treaty dated July 27, 1866.  On November 1st, 1866, he   warned Capt. William G. Rankin of the 3rd. Battalion, 13th Infantry, Ft. Buford, that a large party of 2500 - 3000 Sioux warriors were on the war path 37 miles south.(Innis, Sagas)    We  also find a description of Crow's Breast at the age of 50.  He is described as being "Tall, straight, sturdy built at the age of 50 had no gray hair".(Trobriand, Military Life)  Crow's Breast was a member of the Black Mouth Society and owner of the Woman Above Bundle, the Eagle Trapping bundle, and owned rights in the Naxpike ceremony.  Crow's Breast also was his portrait of by Stanley J. Morrow.

Crows Flies High
  • Hidatsa
  • ca 1832 - 1899
  • Chief

Crow Flies High, also known as Raven That Flies Highest, and Heart was born in the early 1830’s at Like-A-Fishhook Village. He was a member of the Hidatsa Tribe. His parents perished in the 1837 Small-pox Epidemic that devastated the Upper Missouri region. He was raised by a poor family and was thus unable to buy into the prestigious Men’s societies. He compensated by fasting, experiencing visions, and proving his bravery in war.  His bravery and religious vision enabled him to become a head war chief. Crows Flies High and his band left Like-a-Fishhook Village in 1869 to get away from the changes that the reservation system was imposing on his people. Another source states that Crows Flies High and many others disagreed with a decision of the Agent and two of Crows Flies High’s sub-chiefs. In any event, Crows Flies High lead 140 Hidatsa's and Mandan's (later called the Hushgaa Band) 120 miles west of Fort Berthold near Fort Buford.  In the early years away from the reservation, not much is known.  At one time the Hushgaa's  used the vacated Ft. Union near Ft. Buford for protection against the Dakota, and winter camp for hunting expeditions into the Yellowstone country.  In the summer, they would camp at the mouth of the Knife River, grow crops, cut wood, and sell them to the forts and passing steamships. This was a plentiful time for Crow Flies High band. The Territorial census of 1885 reported that Crow Flies High had a large family of six boys and six girls. In 1889, Agent Thomas H. B. Jones met with Crows Flies High to persuaded him to return to Fort Berthold. The decision was made and in April 1894, Crow FliesHigh and his Hushgaa Band returned to the reservation under military escort. After 25 years of refusing acceptance of reservation life and all its implications, Crow Flies High’s band moved into the Shell Creek District and settled down on individual allotments. Soon after he gave up his status as chief to the younger Long Bear. Chief Crow Flies High was unending in his quest to preserve Hidatsa culture. It was known that he could speak English, but would not use it. He was also adamant in his disapproval of "white education" of the tribe’s children, fearing the lose of their culture. He also kept to the traditional dress except on very special occasions where he would wear an officers coat and cowboy hat.

In 1898, Crow Flies High led a group of his people to Williston, N.D. for a parade honoring the soldiers leaving for the Spanish-American War. He gave an exhibition of the old-time war dances, which was perhaps the last time that he danced for the public. Crow Flies High died of pneumonia at his home in Shell Creek in 1899. In his honor there is a butte above the Missouri River, and west of New Town, N.D. named after him. In April of 1996 many of the descendants of the Hushgaa re-enacted the return to Fort Berthold with a memorial ride commemorating the Hushgaa Band, their hardship, perseverance, determination, and commitment to preserve their culture.

 

Crow Flies High, Rose
  • 1918 - 1994
  • Hidatsa
  • 1st woman Tribal Chairwoman / civil rights advocate

Rose Crows Flies High also known as Eda-awa-ge'dah (Back To Earth and Mia-edu-gaah (Woman Above Everything) was born to George Parshall and Ruby White Bear-Parshall in the Shell Creek District of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation on February 22, 1918.   She attended Bismarck Indian School were she excelled in Basketball and tap dancing.  After school, Rose earned a certificate in nursing from the Evangelical Hospital in Bismarck, ND.  On June 30th, 1930, she married George Crow Flies High (son of Chief Drags Wolf) at the county courthouse in Stanley, ND.  She would raise a large family of ten, 8 daughters and 2 sons.  She was active in tribal politics and represented the western district of the reservation on the Tribe's council .  in 1968, Rose was elected as the first woman  to the Tribal Business Council.  She also worked as the Tribe's social worker and  presented testimony on public welfare issues for the Three Affiliated Tribes.  In the Spring of 1968, she  helped with the planning of the Poor People's March on Washington, D.C.   That June, along with another two hundred thousand demonstrators, she marched on Washington, D.C., to stay in Resurrection City, an encampment on the Capital Mall.  In the Fall of 1972, Rose made her first attempt  to become Chairwoman of the Three Affiliated tribes.  Although she was successful, after two months in being elected, her appointment was overturned through an election dispute.  In the next election Rose was successful and served from 1972 to 1974 and as a council woman from 1974 to 1978.  Rose was instrumental in many projects that make the landscape of the reservation. 

Alyce Spotted Bear, commented on Rose: "she was a very humble woman in her own way, and she accomplished a lot in terms of helping to build an infrastructure for the tribal government, because she was chairman at a time when we were making this transition from the BIA, or the Bureau of Indian Affairs, running our tribe, to letting the tribe run our own affairs. She accomplished a lot because she was wise enough to surround herself with people who knew how to navigate the bureaucracy of the federal government and the state governments. She was largely responsible for seeing that all the community buildings and the different districts on our reservation were built and in seeing that we had a tribal administration building built."

 such as the Four Bears Park, Four Bears Motor Lodge, the Three Tribe Museum, the Tribal Administration Building, the start-up of the Northrop Manufacturing Plant in New Town, and the Mine-Tohe Health Center.  She also served on many boards and committees such as the American Indian Travel Commission, the United Tribes Board of Directors, the Four State Health Board, and Plains woman, a monthly newsletter headquartered in Grand Forks, ND, New Town Nursing Home, the Joint Tribal Advisory Commission (JTAC), the Tribal Landowners Association, and North Dakota Women in Government.  In 1979, Rose along with Arthur Tom Mandan, and Ronald Little Owl filed a suit against Secretary of the Interior, Cecil Andrus, claiming the Bureau of Indian Affairs unlawfully asserted jurisdictional powers over the Three Affiliated Tribes. Rose also was know  for maintaining  her cultural heritage and was often seen dancing at pow-wows.  She  was also a member of the Enemy-Woman's Society.  Rose Crow Flies High died in January 9th, 1994.  Rose was laid to rest at the Parshall Community cemetery in Parshall, ND.

 

Crow’s Heart
  • Mandan
  • 1856 -- 1953

Crow's Heart was born in 1856 and a member of the Prairie Chicken Clan. He was a good warrior and was the leader of the old wolves during a war party at the age of nineteen.  But he gained most acclaim as a ceremonial leader owner of a number of rights and bundles.   He participated in the Okipa by hanging over a cliff.  At the age of 23, he first went out to trap eagles. Crow's Heart was a member of the Goose Society Singers. At about the age 30 Crow's Heart bought the right to make fish traps from his clan uncle Old Black Bear who taught him how to make the trap and how to use it. Crow's Heart was the leader of his own camp.  He was one of eleven Informants for the anthropologist, Alfred Bowers in his definitive research on the Mandan and Hidatsa in the 1930's.  His home was at a popular river crossing and many stopped to visit eat.  It  was perhaps the last place where the ancient buffalo ceremonies where performed near the mouth of the Little Missouri to break the drought that was devastating the area.  He also led a group to preserve The Ark of the First Man, which commemorates the near destruction of human-kind in flood and had been a part of  Mandan villages since time immemorial. Crow's Heart passed on in 1953.

Sources:

Bowers. Alfred W. Mandan Social and Ceremonial Organization. Uni. of Chicago Press.

 

   

 

 

--D--

Dance Flag
  • Mandan
In 1875, he was chosen as a delegate to represent the three tribes of the Fort Berthold Agency in Washington, D.C.  The U.S. Government was planning a war expedition into the Little Big Horn country against the Dakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho and wanted the support of the Fort Berthold tribes. Charging Eagle opposed the idea and managed to delay the expedition for a year. Others attending the meeting where: Mandan, Dance-Flag, Running Face, and Charging Eagle, Chas Packenau (interpreter) ; Arikara; Son-Of-Star, Bullhead, Black Fox, Peter Beauchamp (interpreter).
Dawson, Anna
  • Arikara
  • 1870 - June 6, 1968
  • Teacher

 

Anna Dawson or Spahananadaka (Wild Rose) was born to Mary Dawson in 1870  At the age of eight she moved to the Hampton Institute with her mother and they took classes together.  Anna continued school after her mother graduated and finish in 1885.  She continued on  at Hampton until 1887 to teach and complete her post-graduate studies.  After Hampton Anna attended Normal School in Framingham, MA.  Later she would marry Byron Wilde.  During her life she would be a Teacher, church worker, and Field Matron on Fort Berthold Reservation, ND. Anna Dawson-Wilde Died June 6, 1968.

Drags Wolf
  • Hidatsa
  • 1862 - August 24, 1943
  • Hereditary Chief

 

Drags Wolf was born in 1862 to Chief Crows Flies High (who led his band away from Like-A-Fishhook Village in 1869) and Peppermint Woman. He was a member of the Hidatsa Tribe and belonged to the Water Buster Clan. His early years where spent with the Hushga Band near Ft. Buford until about 1894 when the Band was forced to return to the reservation.  Drags Wolf would marry Prairie Dog Woman.   In 1890, Drags Wolf traveled to Ft. Laramie as a tribal delegate.  While there imprints of their feet were set in a cement foundation as a monument of peace. In 1934, Drag Wolf, traveled with a delegation to Rapid City, S.D. to meet with Government officials to discuss the impending Wheller-Howard Act or commonly known as the Indian Reorganization Act.  Drags Wolf would come to be a supporter of the legislation.  In 1934, he was part of the delegation which went to Rapid City, South Dakota to discuss the development of the Wheeler-Howard Bill which became the Indian Reorganization Act. With its reformation, Drags Wolf supported the passage of the Act.  With the implementation of the new IRA Governments Drags Wolfs was chosen as the first councilman representing the Shell Creek District in 1936.  He would be re-elected in 1938 and served until 1941.  He didn't speak English but knew what his constituents wanted.  He held office in a time when these leaders where not paid a salary and traveled  many miles by horse and buggy to attend meetings.   In January of 1938, Drags Wolf, Arthur Mandan and Foolish Bear traveled to New York to repatriate the Water Buster bundle kept by the Heye Museum.  Drags Wolf also was honored by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt with a Peace Medal and raising the flag in front of the Statue Of Liberty in New York harbor. Drags Wolf would later became one of the keepers of the Water Buster bundle and keeper of a family medicine bundle that was handed down from Chief Like Eagle and Crows Flies High.  In 1942, he convinced the the Bureau of Indian Affairs to establish a day school at Shell Creek District so the children could stay in their community and get their  education.   In 1943 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was holding public hearings at a classroom in Ft. Berthold  where residents aired their objections to the impending flooding of their priceless river bottom lands.  Drags Wolf in full traditional regalia spoke to Lt. Gen. Lewis Pick, Chief of Engineers for the Corps:   "You'll never take me from this land alive!"      Pick was one of the authors of the Pick-Sloan plan, which called for a series of five dams on the Upper Missouri, was enraged by Drags Wolf's word.     He thought the people "belligerently uncooperative" and took  a  "take it or leave it" stance in the negotiations.  Drags Wolf was true to his words, and passed on before the flooding of his homelands.  Drags Wolf passed on August 24, 1943.  The same year before his death Ida Lee Prokpt did a sculpture of the Chief is on display in the Three Tribes Museum and also in the State Historical Center in Bismarck.  President FDR commented on Drags Wolf, "This man Chief Drags Wolf is a wise old man if he only could speak English....oh, what he could do for his people as a great leader of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation."

   

 

--E--

 

Elk Feather
  • Mandan
  • b.
  • Soldier Chief
 
  MELVINA EVERETT, 78, tribal leader: Everett, an Arikara elder and oral historian from the Three Affiliated Tribes, died Sunday in White Shield, N.D. Everett was active in the Sahnish Culture Society, and organized in the early 1990s to preserve and promote the Arikara history and heritage. She translated Arikara nursery rhymes for children while teaching them the native language she had been forbidden to speak in school. The Arikara, Hidatsa and Mandan tribes make up the Three Affiliated Tribes that live on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation. 

 

--F--

 

Flat Bear
  • Hidatsa
  • ca. 1740 - 1837

 

Flat Bear or A-ra-tsu-ka-da-pit-zish as he was called by the Mandan was born ca. 1740.   A very brave warrior and a favorite of his tribe, he would become the youngest chief of the Big Hidatsa village at the Knife River. In  1832 he was painted by Catlin who thought him to be at least 100 years old. Flat Bear had a distinct recollection of Lewis and Clark.  He referred to as Clark as "Red Hair" (Clark) and Lewis as  "Long Knife". Lewis and Clark designating Flat Bear as Chief of the Tribe in 1804, of course with the consent of his people too.

Flying Eagle

SEE - Charging Eagle

Fool Chief
  • Arikara
  • -
  • Chief

He was one of the Chiefs representing and signing the Arikara  Treaty of 1825 (also called the Atkinson & O'Fallon Trade Treaty) with representatives of the United States. Others present:  Bloody Hand, Little Bear, Skunk, Chief That Is Afraid and Bad Bear along with a number of warriors. In this treaty, the Arikara acknowledged the supremacy of the United States, which in turn promised them its protection. The Arikara  agreed not to trade with anyone but authorized American citizens and to use United States law to handle injury of American citizens by Indians and vice versa.

Four Bears
  • Hidatsa (Awatiza)
  • ca. 1810 - 1861
  • War Chief / Treaty Chief

 

Four Bears was born to Two Tails.  He was also had rights in ownership of the Daybreak and Sunset Wolf ceremonial Bundles.  Four Bears was a war Chief in the hard times after the 1837 small-pox epidemic that had ravaged the population of the Knife River Villages. 

Weakened and susceptible to attacks from their enemies the Dakota, who  who greatly outnumbered them and wanted to extend their territory north of the Heart River to include the large Painted Wood bottoms near present-day Washburn, North Dakota. 

 By 1845, Four Bears had succeeded in convincing not only his own people but the Mandan and later in 1862 the Arikara to move into one new village further up the Missouri river that would be called Like-a-Fishhook village.  He would become that villages greatest war chief.

In July 31st, 1851, Four Bears and a delegation representing the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara set out on a 1600 mile journey to speak at a gathering of Plains tribes to meet with the US Government and establish their territorial boundaries.  The delegation left from Fort Union with the Assiniboin delegation, Alexander Culbertson ( Agent in charge at Fort Union), and Fr. Jean-Pierre DeSmet (Jesuit Missionary) and followed the Yellowstone River south.  By August 11th, the delegation had reached Fort Sarpy on the mouth of the Rosebud River and waited for the Crow delegation for about a week. The delegation continued their journey and finally arrived at Horse Creek on September 8th, 1851.  On the 17th the delegation sign the treaty with the United States.  The Fort Laramie Treaty was written, establishing a reservation for the Gros Ventres (Hidatsa), Mandan and Arikara.  Four Bears signed for the Hidatsa, Iron Bear signed for Arikara, and White Wolf for the Mandan.  Four Bears became the "keeper" of a copy of the Treaty" that was painted on a buffalo hide.  In preparation for the Treaty signing Poor Wolf had helped define the  boundaries of Hidatsa lands according to tradition and stories associated tribal bundles. Four Bears would be killed while swimming near Fishhook Village in 1861.  A number of monuments have become landmarks at the For Berthold Indian Reservation dedicated to the War Chief and protector of Like-a-Fishhook village now stands in front of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.

 

Four Bears
  • Mandan
  • 1800?-July 30. 1837
  • Chief

Four Bears or Mahto-Topa of the Mandan was born about 1800 to Good Boy. He grew up along the Missouri River at the mouth of the Knife River. Located today near Stanton, N.D. it was one of the largest farming and trade centers of the Northern Plains. His early years coincided with the emergence of the "white man" into the Upper Missouri River Region and during his childhood probably witnessed many visits from the French, Spanish and finally the Americans. The Mandan welcomed these new people into their homes as friends, and so it was Four Bears developed a friendship that lasted until his deathbed.

Four Bears received his name from a battle against a war-party of Assiniboin. He stood his ground while the other Mandan fled and fought the Assiniboin so furiously that  they retreated. The Assiniboin later declared that Four Bears had fought with strength and ferocity of four bears charging. As custom dictates Four Bears depicted his war exploits as paintings on his tipi and clothing. Two buffalo robes depicting these war stories are kept in European museums today.  On one occasion Four Bears drew one of his exploits down  on paper which recounts a battle with a Cheyenne chief of which he told the story to German naturalist and explorer, Prince Maximilian zu Wied:

Mató-Tópe was, on that occasion, on foot, on a military expedition, with a few Mandans, when they encountered four Chayennes [sic], their most virulent foes, on horseback. The chief of the latter, seeing that their enemies were on foot, and that the combat would thereby be unequal, dismounted, and the two parties attacked each other. The two chiefs fired, missed, threw away their guns, and seized their naked weapons; the Chayenne, a tall, powerful man, drew his knife, while Mató-Tópe, who was lighter and more agile, took his battle-axe. The former attempted to stab Mató-Tópe, who laid hold of the blade of the knife, by which he, indeed, wounded his hand, but wrested the weapon from his enemy, and stabbed him with it, on which the Chayennes took to flight. Mató-Tópe's drawing of the scene... shows the guns which they had discharged and thrown aside, the blood flowing from the wounded hand of the Mandan chief .. and the wolf's tail at their heels - the Chayenne being distinguished by the fillet of otter skin on his forehead.

Four Bears grew into a strong warrior and established himself as a leader among his people through the Dog Soldier and Half Shorn Societies. He rose to eminence and became second chief without inheriting any bundles of his parents other than a sacred shield and the rain-calling robe. He had a successful war record and did much fasting. That would have never have elevated him to more than a war leader, but the many feasts that he gave to which the older hereditary bundle-owners were invited gave him the necessary prestige. Four Bears had a sacred robe with a rainbow painted on it that was thought to possess the power to invoke rain and to give luck.

He also augmented his prestige through participation in the Okipa Ceremony. Four Bear's gained further recognition in his second partaking of the Okipa Ceremony.

After an attack by the Arikara on the Mandan village, Four Bear's brother, who was guarding the horses outside the village, was missing for several days.  Four Bears was the first to the scene and found a lance still embedded in his brother's heart.  He returned to the village with the weapon where it was recognized as the spear of Won-ga-tap.   Four Bears walked through the village with the spear crying and proclaiming: "

"Let every Mandan (said he) be silent, and let no one sound the name of Mah-to-toh-pa—let no one ask for him, nor where he has gone, until you hear him sound the war-cry in front of the village, when he will enter it and show you the blood of Won-ga-tap. The blade of this lance shall drink the heart's blood of Won-ga-tap, or Mah-to-toh-pa mingles his shadow with that of his brother."
 

 Four Bears kept the  lance with his  brother's blood still on it and .  Four years later, he prepared for battle by fasting for seven days and completing the Okipa ceremony. He also cut the tip of a finger off and offered it to the "People Above."  In a vision he received, a raven came to him and told him who had killed his brother and how to go about getting revenge. Four Bears followed the raven's advice, he traveled 200 miles to the Arikara village and walked into  Won-ga-tap's lodge while he and his slept, ate his food, smoked his pipe, and stabbed him with his own spear.   He returned home  successful. In the early 1830's the Mandan were visited by the artists George Catlin and Carl Bodmer, whom became close friends and admirers of Four Bears. The paintings that these artists did of Four Bears made him the best known Native American of the Upper Plains prior to the 1837 Small-pox epidemic that decimated about 87 percent of the Mandan Tribe. George Catlin Described Four Bear as

"Free, generous, elegant and gentlemanly in his deportment-handsome, brave and valiant.......

The most extraordinary man, perhaps, who lives at this day, in the atmosphere of Nature’s noblemen".

According to Catlin's own account, Four Bears treated Catlin with much  ceremony. Four Bears had treated him to a feast served six or seven of his wives and  escorted him arm-in-arm through the village. (To read an online version of the account) Catlin was impressed by the fact that although Four Bears was only a sub-chief under the hereditary Chief, his prestige perhaps surpassed all  others through  his  strength and eloquence.  Four Bears became a casualty of this epidemic that arrived on the steamboat "St. Peter". Four Bears died on July 30, 1837.

Catlin tells of his friend Four Bear's death as related to him from the trader Kipp.

"This fine fellow sat in his lodge and watched every one of his family die about him (of the smallpox), his wives and his children...when he walked out, around the village, and wept over the final destruction of his tribe; his braves and warriors all laid low; when he came back to his lodge, where he covered his whole family with a number of robes, and wrapping another around himself, went out upon a hill at a little distance, where he laid for several days...resolved to starve himself to death. He remained there until the sixth day, when he had just strength enough to creep back to the village, when he entered the horrid gloom of his own wigwam, and laying his body alongside of the group of his family, drew his robe over him, and died on the ninth day... So have perished the friendly and hospitable Mandans" (Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, Vol. II, pp. 257-59, 1841).

His descendants were the only survivors and successors eligible to become hereditary chiefs. His son Good Boy attained status as chief but soon died of the small-pox. Another son named Bad Gun later took over as a chief and cared for Four Bear's sacred bundles and tradition of this great Mandan Chief.

SPEECH OF FOUR BEARS ON HIS DEATHBED:

"My friend one and all [he is supposed to have said], listen to what I have to say-Ever since I can remember, I have loved the Whites, I have lived with them ever since I was a boy, and to the best of my knowledge, I have never wronged a White Man, on the contrary, I have always protected them from the insults of others, which they cannot deny. The 4 Bears never saw a White Man hungry, but what he gave him to eat, drink, and buffaloe skin to sleep on, in time of need. I was always ready to die for them, which they cannot deny. I have done everything that a red skin could do for them, and how have they repaid it! With ingratitude! I have never called a White Man a Dog, but today, I do Pronounce them to be a set of Black harted Dogs, they have deceived Me, them that I always considered as Brothers, has turned out to be My Worst enemies. I exhalt in, but to day I am Wounded, and by Whom, by those same White Dogs that I have always Considered, and treated as Brothers. I do not fear Death m,y friends. You Know it, but to die with my face rotten, that even the Wolves will shrink with horror at seeing Me, and say, to themselves, that is the 4 Bears the Friend of the Whites-

Listen well what I have to say, as it will be the last time you hear Me. think of your Wives, Children, Brothers, Sisters, Friends, and in fact all that you hold dear, are all Dead, or Dying, with their daces all rotten, caused by those dogs the whites, think of all that My friends, and rise all togather and Not leave one of them alive. The 4 Bears will act his Part". [Meyer, Roy Willard., The Village Indians of the Upper Missouri. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977., pp, 94

Four Dances
  • Hidatsa
  • 1870-1944

"Four Dances was born in 1870 and was a contemporary of Drags Wolf. He died in 1944."

Four Horns
  • Arikara

Born in 1847 near Fort Berthold. At the age of fourteen he accompanied a war-party against the Sioux. Two years later he enlisted as scout at Fort Buford; He served also at Fort Phil. Kearny, where in a skirmish with Sioux he had a horse shot under him. Returning that summer to the village at Fort Berthold he lead a party in pursuit of some Chippewa who had murdered a Hidatsa, and succeeded in killing two of them. Twice he joined in successful pursuit of Sioux horse-raiders.

He fasted several times. On the third morning of his first fast, three horse-skulls and a buffalo-skull were fastened with rawhide ropes to the muscles of his back. He dragged them a mile to the Hidatsa village, encircled it, and returned to the starting-point, but no vision was experienced. The following summer the Sun Dance was observed, and his father, determined that Four Horns should receive a vision, took him to the burial-ground and fastened him to a post by slits through his back-muscles. From sunset to sunrise he walked around the post, constantly pulling on the rope. The next year his father led him to the same place and had another man tie tie four horse-skulls and one buffalo-skull to his back, and these he dragged some three miles; but the task occupied fully six hours, as the skulls became entangled in the roots of the stump, and he had to free them without using his hands. During the Sun Dance of the succeeding year he was fastened, again by his father, to a resilient ash pole, which, springing back when he pulled on the ropes, greatly increased the torture. Thus he remained from mid-afternoon until well after sunset-about six hours- but no vision vouchsafed him. Four Horns married at the age of fifteen, being eligible by reason of his experience in was gained during the previous year.

 

SUMMARY
Description by Edward S. Curtis: A biographical sketch of this subject appears in Volume V, page 179.

 

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.

 
Fox, Mark

 

Mark N. Fox Graduated from the University of North Dakota

Fox, Robert L.
  • Arikara
  • 1915-1982
  • Tribal Chairman, Pastor

 

Robert L. Fox was born on January 5, 1915 at Nishu, N.D. to Fred and Hanna Wash Fox. He attended school at the Fort Berthold Mission School, boarding school at Pierre, S.D. and Santee Normal School in Santee, Neb. Robert later attended the Cook Christian Training School in Phoenix, AZ. and the  University of New Mexico at Albuquerque. On  April 8, 1936 he married Naomi Johnson in  Center, Neb. and together raised a family of two boys, four girls, and several nieces, nephews, and grandchildren.  Robert became a Congregational Pastor and served the church for 32 year at Twin Buttes, Halliday, and his home church in White Shield, N.D.  He also served for seven years as the Director for the Council of American Indian Ministries of the United Church of Christ.   Robert became active in politics and sought Tribal office from 1960 to 1966.  He  would end up serving four terms (2-Councilman, 2-Chairman).  He was also the first Tribal Chairman elect at-large by the popular vote.   Robert also served for a number of years on the State Indian Affairs Commission, the White Shield School Board (21 yrs.), the United Tribes Employment Center Board (8 terms), and the first Tribal Chairman to serve as the Governor's envoy of the Conference on Indian Affairs, for the United States and Canada. Pastor Fox passed on in February of 1982.

   

 

 

 

 

--G--

 

Gillette, Austin
  • Sahnish / Hidatsa
  • 1946-
  • Tribal Councilman, 1978 -

 

Austin Gillette was born to Evan M Gillette (Nishu) and Evadne Baker (Independence/Elbowoods) on  September 20th, 1946 in Minot, ND.  His Indian name is Tsu Daga or White Shield III which he recieved on his return from active duty in Viet Nam.  Austin was raised by his grandfather Harry Gillette who was an Arikara Chief and bundle keeper.   He started school at  Elbowoods School and finish his high school education at the Immaculate Conception High School in Stephan, S.D. in 1964.  Two year later Austin joined the United States Marine Corps.   He was deployed with the 4th. Plt. B Co. 1st. Amtrac Battalion and arrived in Vietnam and off loaded at Cua Viet with the 1st. Amtrac Battalion.  After his return Austin attended Minot State College and earned his Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1972.  In 1974, he continued went back to school at the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks and earned a Master's Degree in Counseling and Guidance.  In 1978, Austin ran in the Tribal Council election as the White Shield representative and began his long career in politics.  He was the youngest and the first Councilman to be college educated.  Austin currently serves as the post Commander of the Young Hawk Bear American Legion Post 253 and still holds the office of Eastern Segment Councilman.

Gillette, George
  • Arikara

  • 1902-1985

  •  

Sept.1946 - Aug.1948

George Gillette was born on October 29, 1902 on the Fort Berthold Reservation. He attended schools at Bismarck Indian School (ND.), Flandreau Indian School (SD.) and Haskell Institute (KS.)  While at Haskell he studied carpentry and graduated in 1926. In 1930, George married Evelyn Wilkinson and made their home at Beaver Creek where he farmed and ranched.  In 1946 George was elected as the Chairman of the Three Affiliated Tribes.  George's position would pit him against the U.S. Corps of Engineers and the Pick-Sloan Project to inundate the heart of the reservation behind the Garrison Dam.  In 1946, after a long fight the council was forced to sign over the lands Tribal Chairman Gillette said: "The members of the tribal council sign this contract with heavy hearts," he said. "Right now, the future does not look good to us."  By 1951 the Tribal council was implementing the daunting task of uprooting families above the "Taken Area" or flood lands to be flooded.  The Council implemented a relocation plan to smooth the move as much as possible.  George was also a lay minister for the United Church of Christ, a member of the South Dakota National Guard, and a tribal judge for eight years from 1974 to 1982.  He was also a member of the Dead Grass Dance and the Tail Feather Carrier for the Arikara Tribe.  George Gillette died on October 3, 1985.

Gillette, Harry
  • Arikara
  • 1867 - 1947
  • Hereditary Chief

Harry Gillette or Nah T Assuutaáka’ (White Shield II) was born in 1867 at Fort Berthold to Owl Woman (daughter of Chief Son of Star & Red Eagle).  He married Anna and they raised a son and three daughters.  Harry assumed the position as one of the last Traditional Arikara Chiefs before Indian Reorganization Act compelled the creation of a elected council in 1936 and a bundle keeper.  Harry Gillette died on March 6, 1947.

 

Good Bear
  • Hidatsa
  • 1848-

Good Bear or Dahpitsi-tsakish was born in 1848 to No Milk and a woman of the Waterbuster clan.  After the death of his mother, his father's new wife sent Good Bear away to live with Good Bear's maternal uncle, Poor Wolf.  His first war experience was in 1866.  The excerpt from Edward Curtis's "the North American Indian" we find the following description of his deeds:

"... has been in sixteen battles and captured tethered horses twice, and on two occasions rescued unhorsed men in battle. In one encounter his own horse was killed under him. He was in the "Danpike" three times, once as a chief dancer, when he gave away a hundred buffalo-robes and four horses. He fasted three times. Once while hunting he killed a bear, and his friend fastened the skin to slits in Good Bear's shoulders. At a sacrifice to the spirits he then followed the back-trail of the bear until it came to the Missouri river, which he swam, though it was in the spring and the ice was breaking up.

  He would marry a Mandan woman (daughter of Stays Yellow) and  start his family.  Good Bear is described as having run a store for a number of years and was also an appointed Indian Court Judge at the beginning of the reservation period at Fort Berthold until his death.   At the turn of the century the government was striping away the land base of the tribes.  in June of 1902, at a meeting with governments agents thee to discuss the latest plan to take 315,000 acres of their land Good Bear spoke representing those present.

Good Bear, a Hidatsa who acted as spokesman for the whole group, threw McLaughlin off balance by asking him for the dimensions of the reservation.  Upon being told that it measured 44 1/2 by 34 1/2 miles, he complained that the chairman of the committee that had negotiated the agreement of 1886 had told them that it measured 55 by 45 miles and also promised that it would not be taken from them.  He questioned the integrity of the surveyors appointed by the government.  To McLaughlin's further discomfiture, Good Bear pointed out that Special Agent Frank C. Armstrong, who had been there the previous year, had not gone over the reservation or talked with the Indians, as he had claimed, but merely showed them on a map what lands they no longer needed.  "It is just like two little children", he remarked, "one of which wants the plaything of the other."  And he added, pointedly, "Congress makes laws and then breaks them, but we keep our pledges and live up to our agreements." [Meyer, Village Indians, p160-161]

     The meetings reconvened on June 20th and we find the following statements about Good Bear while addressing the government agents:

Good Bear and his fellows were not to be into acceptance of McLaughlin's proposal, however, at least not without some assurances concerning the future.  After asking, "Do we own it [the reservation]?"  Good Bear threw out the question that everyone must have had on his mind: "If we consent to the sale of our land, how long will it be before we will have to sell more of it?"   [Meyer, Village Indians, p160-161]

 In the 1930's after her husbands death, his wife would relate many events to the anthropologist Alfred Bowers of her husband ceremonial life.

Sources:

Bowers, Alfred W.  Hidatsa social and ceremonial organization. 9; U.S. Government Printing Office, c1965.

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30]

Meyer, Roy Willard, 1925-  The village Indians of the upper Missouri : the Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras / by Roy W. Meyer. #9; : Uni. of Nebraska Press, c1977

("Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page : Tribal chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara". MHA Times. vol. 7:8 , (March 1, 1996)., pp. 6.).

 

Good Boy
  • Mandan
  • late 1700's - 1837
  • Chief

 

Good Boy or Suk-Shi was born in the late 1700's.  He became Chief of the On-a-Slant village (near present-day Stanton, ND) after the small-pox first hit the Mandan.  Good Boy is credited with uniting the Mandan into a central village and rebuilding of the their  prominence in the region after the first smallpox epidemic.  He was the father of the famous Mandan Chief Four Bears.  He continued as a Chief at Fort Clark for nine years until he succumbed to the 1837 smallpox epidemic. 

Good Bird, Edward
  • Hidatsa
  • b. 1869 - 1938
  • Pastor/Interpreter

 

Edward Goodbird or Tsaka'kasạkic was born about November 1869 near the mouth of the Yellowstone river to Son-of-A-Star and Buffalo Bird Woman, during a buffalo hunt.  He was one of children to attend the Mission school.  About 1885, he and his family moved from Like-A-Fishhook village to their allotment at Independence, ND.  He was a successful rancher and employed by the government  as the  Assistant Farmer for the Indian agent.   Around 1909, Edward became a pastor of the Congregational chapel at Independence.  He was also know to speak the Hidatsa, Mandan, Dakota, and English languages which would have greatly benefited him as a pastor and tribal representative.   About 1906 he was an interpreter for the anthropologist  Gilbert Wilson of the American Museum of Natural History in New York.  Good Bird had two books published with the help of Gilbert Wilson A coloring book of Hidatsa Indian stories : based on the life and drawings of Edward Goodbird and for more information on his life read  Goodbird the Indian : his story.  Click here for an excerpt from his autobiography entitled “The White Man’s Road is Easier!”: A Hidatsa Indian Takes up the Ways of the White Man in the Late 19th century".
 

Sources:

Goodbird, Edward. Goodbird the Indian : his story / Edward Goodbird as told to Gilbert L. Wilson ; illustrated by Frederick N. Wilson ; with a new introduction by Mary Jane Schneider. . Minnesota Society Press; St. Paul, c1985.

Buffalo Bird Woman's Garden Recounted by Maxi'diwiac (Buffalo Bird Woman) of the Hidatsa Indian Tribe (ca.1839-1932) Originally published as Agriculture of the Hidatsa Indians: An Indian Interpretation by Gilbert Livingstone Wilson (1868-1930). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1917. (Ph. D. Thesis).  http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/buffalo/garden/garden.html

 

Gray Eyes
  • Arikara
  • ca. 1782 -1823
  • Principle Chief

Gray Eyes or ir'Ataraáwiis' was born about 1782  in one of the eighteen Arikara village between the White and Cheyenne Rivers (central South Dakota) when the Arikara were at their peak as a Trade power in the region.  When Gray Eyes was about 13 years old small-pox introduced by "white traders" devastated the balance of power between the Arikara and the Dakota (Sioux).  The Arikara lost more than 8,000 people and had to consolidate into two villages.  As a strange twist of fate, most  of the nation's Chief's and their families where not effected by the epidemic.  So a good percentage of the survivors where Chiefs or their families.  Like the adage:  "too many chiefs and not enough Indians." This was the political climate when Gray Eyes assumed the role of Principle Chief of he Arikara when he replaced Kakawissassa sometime before 1806. In 1806 he met with Lewis and Clark and from their Journals of their return trip we find the following:

[Clark]
Friday 22nd August 1806.

A man of about 32 years of age was introduced to me as 1st Chief of the nation. This man they call the Gray Eyes. He was absent from the Nation at the time we passed up. The man whom we had acknowledged as the principal chief informed me that the Gray Eyes was a greater Chief than himself and that he had given up all his pretensions with the flag and medal to the Gray Eyes. The principal chief of the [Arikaras] was then introduced. He's a stout, jolly fellow of about 35 years of age whom the Arikaras call the Gray Eyes. I also told the Arikaras that I was very sorry to hear that they were not on friendly terms with their neighbors the Mandans & Hidatsas and had not listened to what we had said to them but had suffered their young men to join the Sioux who had killed 8 Mandans &c. That their young men had stolen the horses of the Hidatsas, in retaliation for those injuries the Mandans & Hidatsas had sent out a war party and killed 2 Arikaras. How themselves would not listen to what their great father had told them. I could they expect other nations would be at peace with them when they further informed them that the Mandans & (Arikaras) Hidatsas had opened their cars to what we had said to them but had stayed at home until they were struck. That they were still disposed to be friendly and on good terms with the Arikaras. They then saw the great Chief of the Mandans by my side who was on his way to see his great father, and was directed by his nation & the Hidatsas & Maharhas, to smoke in the pipe of peace with you and to tell you not to be afraid to go to their towns, or take the birds in the plains, that their ears were open to our councils and no harm should be done to an Arikara. The Chief will speak presently. The Gray Eyes Chief of the Arikaras made a very animated speech in which he mentioned his willingness of following the councils which we had given them that they had some bad young men who would not listen to the councils but would join the Sioux. Those men they had discarded and drove out of their villages, that the Sioux were the cause of their misunderstanding &c. That they were a bad people. That they had killed several of the Arikaras since I saw them. That several of the chiefs wished to accompany us down to see their great father, but wished to see the Chief who went down last summer return first. He expressed some apprehension as to the safety of that Chief in passing the Sioux. That the Arikaras had every wish to be friendly with the Mandans &c. That every Mandan &c. who chose to visit the Arikaras should be safe, that he should continue with his nation and see that they followed the council which we had given them &c.

[Clark]
Friday 22nd August 1806.


At 8 A.M. I was requested to go to the Chiefs. I walked up and he informed me that he should not go down but would stay and take care of the village and prevent the young men from doing wrong and spoke much to the same purport of the Gray Eyes. The 2nd Chief spoke to the same and all they said was only a repetition of what they had said before. The Chief gave me some soft corn and the 2nd Chief some tobacco seed. The interpreter Garrow informed me that he had been speaking to the Chiefs & warriors this morning and assured me that they had no intention of going down until the return of the Chief who went down last spring was a year. I told the Chiefs to attend to what we had said to them, that in a short time they would find our words true and councils good. They promised to attend strictly to what had been said to them, and observed that they must trade with the Sioux one more time to get guns and powder; that they had no guns or powder and had more horses than they had use for. After they got guns and powder that they would never again have anything to do with them &c. &c. I returned to the canoes & directed the men to prepare to set out. Some Cheyenne from two lodges on the main (N) S.E. shore came and smoked with me and at 11 A.M. we set out, having parted with those people who appeared to be sorry to part with us
 

  In September of 1807, the Pryor Expedition was returning the Mandan Chief Sheheke when they found the Arikara and the Dakota at war with the Mandan.  On the ninth Pryor held a council with Gray Eyes and presented the Chief with a Peace Medal, but this wasn't to the satisfaction of Gray Eyes.  He followed Pryor and his men to the Upper Arikara Village and demanded trade and Sheheke as a prisoner.  Pryor refused and Gray Eyes threw the Peace Medal into the sand and he and his men open fire on Pryor's men as they retreated back downstream.

"Lead his people in a campaign against the Americans at and around Cedar Fort in March 1823. March or April 1823 William H. Ashley on the two keelboats Yellowstone and the Rocky Mountains approached the two Ree Villages with considerable care. They were about 300 yards apart, situated on the right bank of the Missouri. on the riverside of the village their were breastworks. Ashley went ashore in a sciff to open negotiations. He was met on the beach by two principle chiefs, Little Soldier and Gray Eyes whom he invited aboard his boat Gray Eyes agreed but Little Soldier refused. This was a favorable sign for Ashley because the chief was known for 20 years as a very tough customer and one of the Ree's killed at the fort was Gray Eye’s son. Ashley gave Gray Eyes some presents and stated that he had nothing to do with the company that had killed his son, but said the Great Father in Washington would make sure that justice would be done. Gray Eyes said that a council must be held and that Ashley should remain where he was on the boat. That night Gray Eyes came out to the beach and told them that they would remain friendly and that they would trade with them. "

In May 1823 the death of his son in a battle at Fort Recovery against the Missouri Fur Company post was one of the precursor events that led to the Arikara War of 1823. 

"Gray Eyes was killed in the Arikara war of 1823 when the Ashley-O'Fallon Expedition attacked his village. The Expedition allied  themselves with the Sioux, which would make up two thirds of their force.  After the initial engagement with the Arikara the Sioux got mad and left after the white's didn’t fight. They bombarded the village with cannon. and later the Ree's fled out of village during the night. They only living things found the next morning by the white's where Gray Eyes mother. She was given food & water left in possession of the Ree town. After his death the chief Langue de Biche took over Gray Eye's people. "

Sources:

Foley, William E. and Rice, Charles D. "The Return of the Mandan Chief " Montana: The Magazine of Western History. V. 29:3. July 1979.

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002.

The Lewis and Clark Journal of Discovery : Information on the Arikara Indians Recorded by Members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition October 1804.  Located at: http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/TheJourney/NativeAmericans/Arikara.htm

Morgan, Dale L. , Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West. Bobbs & Merrill Co. Inc. Indianapolis/New York. 1953.

Nestor, William R., 1956-  The Arikara War : the first Plains Indian war, 1823 / William R. Nester. Missoula, Mont. : Mountain Press Pub. Co., 2001.

Sheldon, Addison Erwin  "History and Stories of Nebraska - Old For Atkinson".  Online Nebraska Located at: http://www.ku.edu/~kansite/hvn/books/nbstory/story13.html

 

Grey Prairie Eagle

SEE - Young Chosen Eagle

Grinnell, Calvin
  •  Mandan/Hidatsa
  • b. -living
  • Tribal Historian

 

"I'm a direct descendant of Four Bears. There were two Four Bears. One was the Mandan Four Bears who died in 1837 during the smallpox epidemic. He was a member of the Five Villages.  "My name is Running Elk. that's my Indian name. It was given to me by a World War I veteran, Martin Levings. He led me around the celebration circle to announce to everyone that that was my name, and I was entitled to it. I'd just graduated from boot camp in the U.S. Marine Corps. From then on, I've basically done the proper ethics to warrant carrying that name on forward. ..I'm a historian at the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum. I've always had an interest in our history and culture. I know we have a very proud history of self-sufficiency and being, I guess, survivors."

Source:

Outlook : Calvin Grinnell .  Discovering Lewis & Clark, http://www.lewis-clark.org, © 1999 by VIAs, Inc.  From http://www.lewis-clark.org/newMAN/mh_grinn-txt.htm

   

 

 

--H--

 

 Hall, Ina Beauchamp
  • 1905-?
  • Arikara
  • Educator

 

"She overcame tremendous odds to become one of the most well respected teachers and leaders in her community. Born on the Fort Berthold Reservation, she attended Dickinson State Teachers College. Having frail health even as a child, she suffered a stroke in High School. However, she continued her studies and graduated, being the first native to do so from her school. She worked as a teacher until she married her husband, Edward Hall, and together they managed a ranch and raised nine children. She decided to go back to teaching part-time in order to help with the finances and she immediately got involved in organizing the school's first PTA and 4-H Club. She returned to school at the age of 41, taking summer courses at a teacher's college. It took her seven years of hard work, and difficult times, such as when she lost both her husband and her home, but she eventually received her teaching certificate. After teaching for awhile, she worked as a principle, once again making improvements where she felt they where needed. Her next position was as an agent for the North Dakota State Extension Service. Throughout her reservation, she organized several 4-H Clubs, Homemakers Clubs and Community Development Clubs. After raising the money, she also organized a community center. The list of her accomplishments continued to grow over the years. She labored to establish improved housing for those living on the reservation; she created the list of classes for the first arts and crafts training schools, a program that other reservations used as a model; and she initiated the reservation fair, which became a yearly event. Aside from all of her outside activities, she helped put her children through college and purchased another home. In 1966, she was named North Dakota's "Mother of the Year"."

Source:

Biographical Dictionary of Indians of the Americas. New Port Beach, CA : American Indian Publishers, Inc., c1991, vol. 1, p. 261.

Harold and Eva Case, 100 Years at Fort Berthold (Bismarck, SD: Bismarck Tribune, 1977)
 

 

Hall, James
  • Arikara
  • 1895-1977
  • Tribal Chairman

 

James Hall or Nagh Bitsi Usahas (Iron Bear) was born June 24, 1895 Edward S. Hall and Celeste Malnourie in the trading post they owned and operated at White Earth, N.D..  He was reared at White Shield and Elbowoods on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation. He married Sarah Adelia Fredericks on January 6, 1916 and began farming and ranching along the Little Missouri River where they raised a large family of five sons and four daughters.  He would later work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs for 29 years. James also employed at the Indian hospital at Elbowoods, Elbowoods School and Lucky Mound School. He was a strong voice in tribal affairs and represented the west segment when the tribe formally organized in 1946.  In 1951 he moved his family to Mandaree, N.D. James served from 1946 to 1960 as a Tribal Councilman and Chairman in 1960.  He would often travel Washington, D.C. to negotiate the terms concerning the construction of Garrison Dam and relocation of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara.  He was one of the original members of the Fort Berhold Housing Authority.  James passed on in 1977 at the age of 82 years.

Sources:

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002.

Hall, Tex G.
  • Mandan / Hidatsa
  • b. 9/18/1956-
  • Tribal Chairman

 

Courtesy of the Associated Press

 

 

Tex G. Hall or Ihbudah Hishi (Red Tipped Arrow) was born on September 18th, 1956 to Leland and Audrey (Rabbithead) Hall.  He was one of eight children (four boys and four girls) that didn't have much growing up. Hall remembered that the boys in his family had just two pairs of overalls each year – one pair for work on the ranch and the other pair for school. 

Hall attended a boarding school off the reservation. Since the school’s student body was not entirely comprised of Indian students, there were concerns about racism toward the Native students. Hall’s father – a former tribal council member – told Hall that he would have to study hard and compete with the non-Indians in their own arena. Hall said that he had been following his father’s advice – to be a fighter -- all his life. [NIGA Press Release, August 27th, 2003.]

Tex received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Mary, Bismarck, N.D. and his Masters in Education from the University of South Dakota - Vermillion.  Tex is also working towards his Ph.D. in Education from Vermillion.  He served from 1985 to 1996 as the Superintendent and Principle at Mandaree School.  In 1995 Tex was honored as the North Dakota Indian Educator of the Year by the North Dakota Indian Education Association.   Elected to the Tribal Council in 1996 and as chairman in 1998.  He became the first sitting councilman to successfully capture the Chairman seat in the election.  That same year he was elected as Chairman of the Great Plains Tribal Chairman's Association.   He became the President of the National Congress of American Indian in November of 2001.  Tex has also served on the following: Secretary/Treasurer of the Board of Directors of the United Tribes Technical College, Co-Chair of the National Tribal Leaders Land Into Trust Tribal Task Force, the National Tribal B.I.A. Budget Task Force, a member of the Aberdeen Area Tribal Chairman's Health Board, and the National Indian Child Welfare Association.  He assisted in the development of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act as a delegate.  In April of 1999 Tex was inducted into the North Dakota Sorts College Hall of Fame.  He is an advocate for the Act To Leave No Child Behind and the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Elders Organization.  He continues to ranch in the Mandaree, N.D. area.

Sources:

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002.

NIGA Press Release, August 27th, 2003.  NIGA honors four leades from the great plains at annual chairman's leadership awards banquet.  National Indian Gaming Association, 2003.  Found at: http://www.indiangaming.org/info/pr/press-releases-2003/leadership-awards.shtml

Welcome : Tex Hall .  Discovering Lewis & Clark, http://www.lewis-clark.org, © 1999 by VIAs, Inc.  From http://www.lewis-clark.org/newMAN/mh_texha-txt.htm

Hard Horn
  • Hidatsa
  • Chief

 

Known as a progressive leader and a medicine man, his son Long Arm or Arihotchkish attended Hampton Institute.  He participated the Naxpike Ceremony.

Source: 

Bowers, Alfred W.  Hidatsa social and ceremonial organization. 9; U.S. Government Printing Office, c1965.

Brudvig, Jon L. Ph.D. Hampton Normal & Agricultural Institutes American Indian Students, 1878-1923
found at: http://www.twofrog.com/hamptonmale1.txt

Meyer, Roy Willard, 1925- The Village Indians of the Upper Missouri: The Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras. : Uni. of Nebraska Press, c1977, p.205
 

Holds The Eagle
  • Hidatsa

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.
Howard, Phyllis

 

Graduated from Pennsylvania State University with a degree Education was instrumental in the Tribal College movement and the development of the Fort Berthold Community College.

   

 

--L--

 

Lean Wolf

SEE Poor Wolf

Levings, Martin
  • Hidatsa
  • b. 1892-1974
  • Tribal Chairman

 

"Martin Levings, was born Oct. 14, 1892, at Fort Berthold Reservation. He served as Tribal Business Council Chairperson from 1938 to 1940, and later moved to Wibaux and Livingston, Montana. He returned to New Town in 1960. For several years he was an active member and former commander American Legion Post No.300 of the Little Shell District. He was also a member of the VFW, at Mandaree, ND. He joined the Army in 1918 and was injured.  Levings was a rancher and farmer. He died October 27, 1974. "

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.139.

 

Little Bear
  • Arikara
  • b. ca. 1790-?
  • Chief

 

Little Bear or Ca-car-we-ta born in the late 1700's  in one of the eighteen Arikara village between the White and Cheyenne Rivers (central South Dakota) when the Arikara were at their peak as a Trade power in the Missouri River region. He supposedly received peace medals from Lewis and Clark.  He was one of the Chiefs representing and signing the Arikara  Treaty of 1825 (also called the Atkinson & O'Fallon Trade Treaty) with representatives of the United States. Others present:  Bloody Hand, Little Bear, Skunk, Fool Chief, Chief That Is Afraid and Bad Bear along with a number of warriors. In this treaty the Arikara acknowledged the supremacy of the United States, which in turn promised them its protection. The Arikara  agreed not to trade with anyone but authorized American citizens the use of United States law to handle injury of American citizens by Indians and vice versa.  He was also known as Male Crow, Man Crow, Brave Crow, and Kakawita.

 

 

Little Crow
  •  Mandan
  • b. early 1800's
  • 2nd Chief

 

Little Crow or  Ka-goh-ha-mi was born in the early 1800's.   According to the Lewis and Clark Journals he was listed as the second chief under Sheheke at the Mitutanka or Lower village (near present day Washburn, N.D.).  On October 29th, 1804 he attended a council with Lewis and Clark and was presented a Peace Medal. 

March 19 ( Sunday )
Visited by the Big White and Little Crow and a man and his wife with a sick child. The child was administered assistants.
[Lewis and Clark Expedition February 16-April 6, 1805]

[Clark]
23rd December Sunday 1804
Great numbers of Indians of all descriptions came to the fort, many of them bringing corn to trade. The Little Crow loaded his wife & son with corn for us. Capt. Lewis gave him a few presents, as also his wife. She made a kettle of boiled simmons, beans, corn & chokecherries with the stones, which was palatable. This dish is considered as a treat among those people. The chiefs of the Mandans are fond of staying & sleeping in the fort.

He was listed as a Chief and put his mark to the 1825 Treaty with the Mandan. He  head Chief of the Mandan at the Small Village (Mi-te-son-kas) at the Knife River before 1837. Little Crow founded the small village.  Also called Little Raven and Par-res-kah-cah-rush-ta.

Sources:

Gary E. Moulton, editor. The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition /  Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, c1983-, v. 3

Little Raven
See - Little Crow
Little Sioux
  • Arikara / Dakota
  • b. 1857-?

Little Sioux also called One Wolf in his youth was born at Ft. Clark in 1857 to Small Brave (Dakota) and Young Holy Brave.  Little Sioux's siblings were (brother) Red Wolf or Red Brush, and (sisters) Young-Calf-Woman, and Young-Bird-Woman.  He moved with his people from Ft. Clark to Ft. Berthold in 1861.  Not long after arriving at Ft. Berthold his parents passed away and in 1874 he married his first wife, Young-Big-Horn-Woman.  In 1875 he and his brother enlisted at Ft. Lincoln as  Indian Scouts and were put under the command of General George Armstrong Custer on his Black Hills Expedition into Sioux Territory to look for gold.  On July 2, 1874, Little Sioux started out from the vicinity of Ft. Lincoln (near present-day Bismarck, N.D.) with a contingent of 1000 men, 110 wagons, and hundreds of horses, mules and cattle.   Up until this time, no organized party of whites had traveled into the Black Hills and returned to civilization to tell about it.  After they had surveyed the area and searched for signs of gold they began their journey home.  They camped one night near Bear Butte and arrived home on Aug. 30, 1874.  Little Sioux was a survivor of the Little Big Horn battle, after which he signed up with the Northern Pacific survey as a hunter.  He and another Arikara named Charging Up The Hill traveled by steamboat up to the Yellowstone country and didn't return until that winter with $160 for his work.  From 1878 to 1882 he was employed as a mail carrier on the Fort Berthold-Fort Rice route receiving 25$ a day.  He would routinely make stops at Fort Lincoln and at Joseph Taylor's woodyard and visit Taylor because he could speak Pawnee and language close to his own.   He lived at Nishu. and was buried at the Old Scouts Cemetery in White Shield, N.D.

Sources:

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30]

Libby, Orin Grant, 1864-1952, ed.  The Arikara narrative of the campaign against the hostile Dakotas, June, 1876. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Historical Society, 1920.

Little Soldier
  • Arikara
  • b. ca 1850-?
  • Indian Scout

 

"As Custer's Seventh Cavalry marched from Fort Lincoln, members of each company rode different-colored horses: A Company rode black horses, B Company rode bays, and C Company rode sorrels. The Arikara scouts rode army horses and their own ponies, which were mostly Paint. After the Sioux had their revenge at the Little Big Horn, there was mourning in the Arikara village for the three Arikara scouts slain with Custer. The song originated at that time and handed down from generation to generation refers to a young warrior and his spotted horse. The words of this song, translated into English mean: "Little Soldier's [the Arikara scout killed with Custer at the Little Big Horn] spotted horse has returned [home] alone." The horse they were singing about was the Paint Horse who walked all the way from the hard-fought battle and arrived early in the morning at his village, scarred, injured, and showing signs of a hard journey. The Arikaras knew the horse and knew how far he must have traveled. They also knew the young scout who did not return as Little Soldier, and today on a granite marker at the Custer National Monument in Montana listed under Scouts is the name Little Soldier."

Sources:

Haynes, Glynn W.  .The American Paint horse in America.  Midnight Breeze Paint Horse Ranch, n.d. Found at: http://www.higherpowered.com/horse_articles/historyphorse.htm
 

Little Soldier, August
  • Arikara
  •  

Sahnish

"Little Soldier advocated for tribal homes and community buildings need to have access roads. (Indians," 1967), served on the National Executive Council of the United Church of Christ, the first American Indian elected to such a high post in any American church. Many of his projects of interest included human resources development. He negotiated with the four company consortium building the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plan, served on a committee studying the social and economic impact of the plan. He was instrumental in securing their commitment to hire American Indians. ("Citizens", 1981). In 1978, August Little Soldier was elected as vice-chairman of the Tribe, and served from 1978 to 1981 he served as vice-chair of the Council. He ran for re-election in September of 1982."

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.142.

Little Soldier, Nathan
  •  Arikara
  • b. 1919 - 1980
  • Tribal Chairman

Nathan Little Soldier was on born April 2, 1919 to Clarence Little Soldier and Willena Young Bear in Beaver Creek.  His education took him to schools such as  Wahpeton, North Dakota; Pierre, South Dakota; Santee, Nebraska, and Elbowoods, ND. On October 16, 1938 he married Rosella Hall and they would raised three sons: Dale, Shote, and Arby.  Not long after his marriage,  World War Two broke out and Nathan enlisted in the Army and was sent to fight in the European Theatre. After the war Nathan returned home to Beaver Creek continued to farm and ranch.  He was active in rodeo and was known for his calf-roping.  In 1971 he ran and was elected to the Tribal Council for the Southern Segment of the Ft. Berthold  Indian reservation.  He would step up to the Chairman position after Ralph Wells passed on while in Office.  Nathan served on many committee and was a staunch opponent the mining interests that where looking to strip mine on Ft. Berthold.  In 1971, when the United Power Administration, out of Elk River, MN proposed a 300 megawatt plant,  Little Soldier fought back fearing that strip mining for lignite would destroy the value of the land.  The Council did lease 300,000 acres to Consolidate Coal Co. For mining rights. Nathan Little Soldier passed on in August of 1980.

Sources

"Selection is planned for Indians to vote on Power Plant Fate."  August 8, 1971. Minot Daily News.

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.144.

Lone Fight, Edward
  • Hidatsa/Mandan/Arikara
  • b. 1939-
  • Tribal Chairman

 

Edward Lone Fight or Saga Sake (Good Bird) was born on May 28th, 1939 to Theodore Lone Fight and Mabelle Good Bird.  He grew up in the Mandaree area and attended Mandaree High School and graduated in 1959  as the class Salutatorian.  He continued his education at Dickinson State University and received a Bachelor of Science degree as a double major in Science and Physical Education.  He would later receive a Masters Degrees in Education from Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona and a Masters in Public Administration from Portland State University.  In 1989 he was inducted into the Athletic Hall of Fame.  He would serve as a Civil Servant for twenty years at various posts within the Bureau of Indian Affairs which included: Fort Yates, N.D.; Phoenix, AZ.; Salem, OR., Anadarko, OK., and Washington, D.C. He was appointed by the Assistant Secretary of Interior to serve on the Indian School Equalization Fund Task Force whose mission was to devise an equitable funding formula for all B.I.A funded schools nation-wide.  Lone Fight returned home and ran successfully for the Tribal Chairmanship in 1986.  Some of his notable accomplishment were: repatriation, establishment of tribal services including the funding of a Dialysis Center, Diabetes Program, and Solid Waste Disposal System for the reservation,  Mandaree Electronics, LCM (Lumber, Construction, and Manufacturing) Co., and final negotiations and introduction of legislation on the Just Compensation Bill based on the findings of the Joint Tribal Advisory Committee (JTAC) for lands taken under the Garrison Diversion Project.  From 1994 to 1998, he was employed by the Three Affiliated Tribes as Programs Manager.  After which Lone Fight served as the Mandaree School District Superintendent of Schools until 2000.  During this time he also served on the North Dakota Council of Bilingual Education Directors and the Dickenson State University Alumni Association Board of Directors.  In September of 2003 He was appointed as the Superintendent at Crow Agency.

Source:

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002.

Great Falls Tribune Online.  BIA names new Crow Agency leader.  Local News - Monday, September 1, 2003.  Found at: http://www.greatfallstribune.com/news/stories/20030901/localnews/170963.html

 

 

Long Bear
  • Hidatsa
  • b. 1834-1912
  • Chief

 

Long Bear or Wah-pi-tsi-ha-tski was born in 1834 to Cherry Necklace (Hidatsa/Crow) and Bug Woman.  Long Bear would marry three times.  His first wife a Dakota died not long after their marriage.  His Second wife was named Medicine Lodge, but this marriage didn't work out for him.  His final marriage was to Grey Woman.  One of his sons was named Old Dog.  He was a member of the Night Grass Society.  He was among those of Crow Flies High's Hushga Band that in 1870 left the reservation to live near Fort Union and away from U.S. Government interference.  In 1894 when the Hushga Band was making their journey back to the reservation old Chief Crow Flies High decided to step down as Chief. 

"At Tobacco Creek, a few miles above Newtown, they were all reunited as a band for the first time in many years. At this time Crow-Flies-High relinquished his chieftainship in favor of a younger man. He knew that he would not live much longer, so he began to examine the qualifications of several prospective successors in his own clan. Finally he decided to support a more distant kinsman, Long Bear, as his choice for chief. After this, the band formed a long column which moved southward toward the reservation, traveling along the north bank of the Missouri River. Rufus Stevenson, who was then a mere lad, still remembers seeing the long line of Red River carts (a two-wheeled vehicle), pack and saddle horses, and travois wending their way toward the reservation. The arrival date is given as April 2, 1894 (Clapp, 1984, p. 222)."
 

Long Bear remained in that position until 1912 when he died at the age of  78. 

Sources:

Bowers, Alfred W.  Hidatsa social and ceremonial organization. 9; U.S. Government Printing Office, c1965.

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002.

Life Long Learning Online: the Lewis & Clark Rediscovery Project - The Shrinking Reservation . Found at:

http://www.l3-lewisandclark.com/ShowOneObject.asp?SiteID=31&ObjectID=513

"Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page : Tribal chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara.  MHA Times. vol. 7:8 , (March 1, 1996)., pp. 6.).

 

Long Time Dog

SEE Old Dog

   

 

 

--M--

 

Mad Bear
  • Arikara
  • b. late 1700's
  • Treaty of 1851 Signatory

 

Mad Bear or kunnx te nosiíA’ was born in the late 1700's probably at the western Grand River Arikara village.  During his life he would see the Arikara loss control of the Missouri River trade in present-day central South Dakota due to the decimation of their Nation from small-pox and other diseases.  Their Tribe concentrated into two villages (from 15) had migrated back and forth between their own territory that was being threatened by the Dakota and the safety of their relatives in to the south in the Pawnee villages of Nebraska. He would have eventually moved with his people to the north, near the the Knife River and eventually to Like-a-fishhook Village in north west North Dakota.  It was during this time,  in 1851 that he was one of three Arikara delegates sent to Horseshoe Creek near Fort Laramie (present-day Wyoming) to represent the Arikara and establish their territorial claim with the United States.  He signed the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty (as Koun-hei-ti-shan) along with Bi-atch-tah-wetch.  Other Arikara delegates present were  Bear Chief and  Young Eagle Chosen.

Man Crow

SEE - Little Bear

 

Malnourie, Vincent
  • Arikara
  • b. 1910-1979
  • Tribal Chairman

Vincent Malnourie or Teehuunniinaxd was born on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation on March 21, 1910 to Charles and Daisy (Little Sioux Duckett) Malnourie. He went away to boarding school and completed his high education in 1932 at Sherman High School in Riverside California.  With the outbreak of World War II Malnourie enlisted in the Navy.  After the war the Malnourie was employed with the Bureau of Indian Affairs for thirty years.  Upon his retirement in 1968, he successfully ran for office as Tribal Chairman and again in 1973.  During his service he; negotiated on the proposed terms of settlement of several of the Three Affiliated Tribes claims pending before the Indian Claims Commission, initiated the construction of the Mandaree Community Hall, Utility Building at Dragswolf Village, and construction of Phases 1 of the Four Bears Park, supported  legislation to establish a historic site out of the Knife River Indian villages near Stanton, ND. Malnourie also worked several years for the Tribe's Alcoholism Program.  He was a member (and sing stick holder) of the Sahnish Traditional Dead Grass Society and strived to restore the Old Scout Society.  He was a well known Pow-wow singer and Grass Dancer and always strove to save the Arikara culture.

Source:

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002.

Mandan, Arthur

(Mandan/Hidatsa)

Sept.1936 - Aug.1938

Arthur Mandan, Woman Spirit, was born in 1882 to Calf Woman and Howard Mandan Sr. (Scarred Face), who was one of the first Mandans to be taken to an Indian boarding school in Sioux Falls. His grandmother was Antelope Woman. As a young man, he attended school at Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania where he was a member of the band, a skill he continued throughout his adult life. He returned to Fort Berthold Reservation in 1908.

He was a band leader in Washburn, N.D. for a number of years, and was in the band that played at many functions on the Fort Berthold Reservation, such as Memorial Day. Arthur Mandan spoke Mandan, Hidatsa, and English fluently and served as interpreter for many years. In January, 1938, he accompanied and interpreted for Drags Wolf and Foolish Bear when they went to New York City to the Heye Museum to recover and return the sacred bundle of the Waterbuster Clan to the Hidatsa Tribe. On their return, they met with President Roosevelt in Washington, D.C.

Arthur Mandan was a very active leader on the Ft. Berthold Reservation. He was the first tribal chairman of the Three Affiliated Tribes serving from September 1936 to August 1938, after the acceptance of the Indian Reorganization Act by the people. He was considered among the "more prominent Catholic parishioners" on the Fort Berthold Reservation. He interpreted sermons and speeches into Hidatsa and Mandan, translated Catholic hymns into the Hidatsa language, and was employed at Sacred Heart Mission for a time. He was appointed as a judge on the Reservation, and was well known as an announcer at many public functions. He announced at the last celebration at Elbowoods before the flooding of the bottomlands for the Garrison Dam.

Arthur Mandan was married to Anna Young Bird. They ranched at Independence and had a home at Lucky Mound where their children attended school. ("Indian Tribes," 1953). He died in March of 1955 at the age of 73. ("Mandan 73," 1955).

Photo courtesy of the Three Affiliated Tribes Museum.

From the : American Indian Ritual Object Repatriation Foundation News & Notes, "The Power of Publicity"., Vol. 5, number 1 (Spring/Summer 1998). New York

"In the mid-1930's, clan members turned to Arthur Mandan for help in recovering the bundle.  Mandan,  not a member of the Water Buster clan, served on the tribal business council.  He had a reputation for expression and he grasped the power of public opinion.  Mandan's tug of war with the Heye Foundation lasted two years.  Excerpts from letters reveal some of the cultural barriers: 

Dec. 31, 1936

Dear Arthur,

     The matter of its return has been taken up with the Museum, but he people there say they cannot return it inasmuch as it is part of the collection.  They want to keep it.

Do you think a copy of it would be acceptable?  Some of the older members of the clan might be able to work "medicine" on it.  If that won't be acceptable, would it be possible for you to use photographs? It might be possible that they would rub the original over the copy of the photographs and that might have some effect with the old timers.

Sincerely yours,

D.E. Murphy

Mandan's answer reflects tribal member's complete understanding of the issues at stake:

Dear Danire:

     I read the letter to the older members of the clan, and they wish me to ask whether the Museum would take $250 for the return of skulls alone.  They say these skulls once lived as humans with the Gros Ventres and were members of the above said clan.

     Now Chicken brother, see what you can do for the Water Buster Clan.

     Sincerely your,

     Arthur Mandan

Mandan stepped up the pressure in 1937, spreading the story of the bundle to legislators and reporters.  Mandan's children say he addressed at least one session of congress, but the newspapers proved to be the key.  In interviews, Mandan not only asserted the bundle held ancestral bones, but that its absence  from North Dakota contributed to the drought ravaging the prairies.  Readers related to both issues, and created enough interest that the museum consented to a trade: the bundle for an equal artifact.

In January of 1938, Mandan and two members of the Water Buster clan, Drags Wolf, 75 and Foolish Bear, 84, went to New York, taking with them "artifacts" to trade: a hastily assembled stone hammer roughed up to look old, an a sun bleached bison horn stuffed with sage.  The delegation received the red-carpet treatment.  There was a dinner at the home of Joseph Kennedy, and a meeting with Franklin D. Roosevelt.  Before the end of the week, more than a dozen stories ran in New York papers alone.

Photographers crowded the room in which the exchange ceremony took place.  At the climax, the museum staff, who had insisted they new how to care for relics better than the Hidatsa, opened the bundle, revealing the skulls and sacred objects.

Foolish Bear and Drags Wolf rushed forward to shield the contents from photographers.

When the delegation returned North Dakota with the bundle, lightening pierced the winter clouds for 40 miles up and down the Missouri River.  That spring, as clan members came from across the Dakotas to celebrate before the skulls, the skies opened, and water poured to the ground.  Later that year, Arthur Mandan was elected the first tribal chairman of the Three Affiliated Tribes.

Special thanks to Mary Heng for contributing this story for our newsletter.

Sources:

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.139.

 

 

Mason, Russell "Buddy"
  • Mandan/Sahnish
  • 1936-
  • Tribal Chairman

 

Russell "Buddy" Mason was born in1936 to Victor Mason and Cecelia Mason Brown in Elbowoods, N.D. on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation.  In his youth Buddy was given the Indian name of "Buffalo Boy".  He attended school at Elbowoods and graduated from high school from New Town High School.  After high Buddy enlisted into the Armed Services and served until 1959.  After the service he continued his education at the University of Iowa and Black Hills State College and became the first Native American certified in the field of alcohol and drug abuse.  After 1970, Buddy went to work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs to develop alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs throughout "Indian Country".  In 1978 he continued his fight against alcohol and drug abuse with the Indian Health Service and worked to development legislation that related to national Indian alcohol abuse initiatives. Buddy received numerous national awards, which included the Department of Health and Human Services Award for exceptional performance and contributions to the alcohol and drug abuse field.  He returned home to 1994 to successfully challenge the incumbent Tribal Chairman for that office on issues of credibility into the government, establishment of more effective government, and accountability.  He also served as Vice-President of the National Congress of American Indians, Chairman of the Aberdeen Area Tribal Chairman's Health Board, and Chairman of the United Tribes Board of Directors.

Sources:

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002.

 

Midday Sun
  • Hidatsa

 
Mink
  • Mandan
  • b. ca 1829

 
Mint
  • Mandan
  • b. ca. 1815

Mint was the subject of a painting by the artist George Catlin in 1832.

Mouse Colored Feather
  • Mandan
  • Warrior

 

 
   

 

--N--

 

Night Hawk

, (?)

 

 

--O--

 

Old Bear
  • Mandan
  • b. ca. 1785
  • Medicine Man

Painted in 1832 by artist George Catlin.
 

Old Dog

, (Hidatsa ; 1850?-1928)

 

 

"""Old Dog was born in 1850 at Like-a-Fishhook Village. His parents, Many Bears and Sweet Grass, from the Hidatsa village at Knife River, had survived the 1837 smallpox epidemic.

Old Dog received Allotment No. 253, 160 acres of land located north of the Missouri River about 1 mile from the community of Elbowoods.

Old Dog and his wife, Many Dances, along with other Fort Berthold families, soon established farming and ranching operations. His son, Martin Old Dog, inherited this land after Old Dog's death in 1928. The land was productive and for a period of about 55 years it sustained the family's farming and ranching operation. In the mid-1950's this allotment, along with many others along the Missouri River, became covered with waters from the Garrison Dam.

"""

"Old Dog was born approximately 1850. His descendants and family name are still present on Ft. Berthold. His son, Martin, took the name Cross and served as Tribal Chairman in the mid 1940’s and 50’s."

Also called Long Time Dog

Born 1850. At the age of eighteen he accompanied a war-party for the first time. The following year he counted first coup on a Ogalala, and later on a Hunkpapa. When he was twenty-six, a war-party pursued three Sioux horse-raiders, one of whom he killed. During a Sioux attack on a Hidatsa village at Fort Berthold, North Dakota, the combined forces of Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara charged the Sioux; ten of his comrades were killed behind Old Dog as he counted coup on a dead enemy.

 

Sources:

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.211

Life Long Learning Online: the Lewis & Clark Rediscovery Project. Found at:

http://www.l3-lewisandclark.com/ShowOneObject.asp?SiteID=31&ObjectID=513

 

 

One Eye

, (Hidatsa; ?)

Also called Le Borgne

 

--P--

 

Painte, Deborah
Painte Deborah A Montana State University Public Administration Three Affiliated Tribes

 

Plenty Wolf
  • Mandan
  • b.
  • Soldier Chief
Poor Wolf

, (Hidatsa ; 1820 - 1898?)

 

 

 

 

Also called or Tsesha-Hadhadish. Poor Wolf was born about 1820 and raised in the Awaxawi Hidatsa village at the mouth of the Mouth River on the Missouri. His father’s name was Buffalo Hide Tent and his uncle was the chief "Road Maker" Adihidish . When Poor Wolf was 17 he almost became a victim of the 1837 small-pox epidemic that ravished most of the tribe. After Poor Wolf’s recovery, religion became a major aspect in his life. He participated in many ceremonies, learned the old stories, and sought spiritual revaluation through fasting. At the age of 19, Poor Wolf fasted for 20 days and was tattooed by the elders with various symbols to give his supernatural protection. He had also inherited the ownership of the Awaxawi Earthnaming Bundle, which gave him certain religious rights and powers of leadership within the tribe. Poor Wolf went on his first war expedition in 1840 and by 1842 had become a respected warrior.

In the early 1840’s the tribe divided and Poor Wolf and his followers moved north and established Like-a-Fishhook Village. In 1847, Poor Wolf bought in the Half-Shaved-Head Society and one year later this society bought the rights to the Black Mouth Society. They controlled both of these police societies for the next 8 years. At the Fort Laramie Treaty Council of 1851 Poor Wolf was present to help Four Bear (Hidatsa Principle Chief) establish the extent of the Hidatsa Territory.

Christian missionaries came to Fort Berthold in 1878 to recruit students for the mission school at Hampton, Virginia. Poor Wolf was asked to let his daughters attend but he refused. Later, while on a trip with Son of Star to Washington, D.C., he visited the school at Hampton and decided to let his daughters (Miriam & Otter) attend the mission school at Santee, Nebraska. Poor Wolf in the meantime had become the camp crier and friend of the missionary Ho-Waste (Rev. Charles. L. Hall) and would call the people in for church services. Poor Wolf was one of the first elders to convert to Christianity and was baptized as Abraham Poor Wolf in 1893. He was also on e of the first to leave the old village and take an allotment.

In 1898, Poor Wolf was part of a delegation that sought the return of lands taken by the government and petitioned the government to let a delegation come to Washington, D.C. and air their grievances. Throughout the life of Abraham Poor Wolf (Tsesha-Hadhadish), his inspiration through religious conviction and leadership helped his people through difficult and changing times.

Sources:

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.

Hall, Charles L. 100 Years at Ft. Berthold: the History of Fort Berthold Indian Mission 1876-1976 . Bismarck Tribune, 1977.

Meyer, Roy Willard, 1925- The Village Indians of the Upper Missouri: The Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras. : Uni. of Nebraska Press, c1977,

Bowers, Alfred W. Hidatsa Social and Ceremonial Organization., Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1992.

 

   

 

--R--

 

Rabbithead
  • Hidatsa/Mandan

He was born to a Mandan father and a Hidatsa mother.  He was a member of the Prairie Chicken clan.   Purchased the rights to the Hide Beating or Nax'pike' Ceremony from his step-father Snake Cane from the Awaxenawita Clan of Hidatsa.  He was said to have participated in the torture aspect of the ceremony.

 

 

 

Sources:

Bowers, Alfred W.  Hidatsa social and ceremonial organization. 9; U.S. Government Printing Office, c1965.

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.

Raven Man Chief
  • Mandan

 

Raven Man Chief (Cargarnomakshe)
Red Buffalo Cow

, (Mandan)

Also called Red Roan Cow

Mandan Head Chief about 1880. His second chief was Bad Gun or Charging Eagle.

First chief after the 1837 Small-pox epidemic.

Signer of the 1851 agreement.

Morrow made portraits of him

Described by William Courtenay as easygoing, good-humored, good hearted, but to feeble to lead his people; 1880.

"Red Buffalo Cow or Red Roan Cow became principle Chief of the remaining Mandan people after the 1837 small pox epidemic. He was the signer of the territory of the Three Affiliated Tribes, better known as the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851." ("Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page : Tribal chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara". MHA Times. vol. 7:8 , (March 1, 1996)., pp. 6.).

Was called Ma-tae-heshish by the Hidatsa.

Arthur’s dad’s name was Howard Mandan. He was one of the first to go to school in Sioux Falls where they had as Indian school. Arthur Mandan (was half Hidatsa/,half Mandan) was his grandson, went to Carlisle, PA>

Stories he received from his grandmother Antelope Woman which was her dad. When he was a young man, he went on a vision quest, danced in the sun dance. During the Sun Dance, he pulled buffalo skulls. They come out of the medicine house, around the village. Some of the older men at the time, they followed him and had him look up. The good spirits, when he looked up he saw this beautiful bird and it had four heads. He’s never seen anything like this. So, he thought it was the thunderbeing. One of his callers, was to bring rain. When it was dry, they came to him, and prayed for rain for the crops and stuff.

Another time, he was walking along the edge of the Forrest, and something grabbed him from the back. He lost consciousness, and in his dream, he saw a man standing there, and it was a bear. The bear asked him to follow him. He came to a cave, and there was a man lying there and he thought the man had pneumonia. The bear sang a sacred song. He reached down and put one of those coals in his mouth. He blew on the sick person and the sick person got well and walked away.

Thereafter, when someone got sick with pneumonia, they asked him to heal them. He might have had other stuff, but those two are the gifts, that this chief had. He told his young Mandan warriors not to be scouts for Custer, He said, that even though they were not fighting against Custer, those other were Indians. So the Mandans did not go with Custer.

He sent scouts to Oklahoma, when the government wanted to send the Mandans to Oklahoma Territory. The scouts returned and said the earth was red there and dry, Roan Buffalo Cow talked to government officials. He said, "when you come her, we took care of you." "You are not sending the Sioux down there, and they are your enemies, I an not your enemy. The people around Philadelphia, negotiated with the government on behalf of the Indians to stay in their area. The Mandans did not have to go to Oklahoma.

During the small-pox , he took his family north, into Canada, and lived for time with the Cree, This allowed his family to survive. (Mandan, Adam, (Great-Great-Great Grandson) Telephone interview on April 21, 1997.

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.124.

 

Red Star
  • Arikara
  • 1858-?

"Born in 1858 near Fort Clark, in present North Dakota. At seventeen years of age he was one of a war-party of about thirty that descended the Missouri River in bull-boats. In the vicinity of the present Standing Rock agency they landed, and after crossing a stretch of timber came suddenly on a small Sioux camp at the edge of the woods. The leader, Sitting Bear, sent four men to stampede the horses. Two animals were captured, and the Sioux (there were five men, besides the women and children) escaped into the woods. Since he had participated in a successful foray, the youth was permitted to choose a new name, and he selected that of Red Star. The year before he had gone to Bull Neck and asked that his flesh be cut so that he might have a vision. So Bull Neck set up a post on the outskirts of the village, pierced Red Star’s chest muscles, and fastened him with two ropes to the post. A spirit-hawk came and assured the youth that he would live long and be successful. After about six hours he was released. Red Star was a scout with Custer’s command in the campaign of 1876. ["Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page". MHA Times. vol. 8:2 , (January 12, 1996)., pp. 4.]

One Fall Red Star and Bear's Belly went out hunting bear. They tracked one bear to the river and across the sand up to a cut bank cave. They went to the entrance and looked in but could not stir him. Bear's Belly went up the bank to the other entrance and seeing the bear's head shot at him. He sank out of sight and the two men crawled into the den about eight feet and began poking him to find out whether he was dead or alive. At last they found him dead, Bear's Belly and Red Star had a hard time dragging him out of the cave because he was very heavy. Bear's Belly took the head and skin to use in a ceremonial dance. In order to use this skin he had to drag it home by means of thongs fastened to his own flesh. Red Star cut two gashes in Bear's Belly's back and fastened the rawhide thongs as done in the Sun Dance. Red Star went on ahead after doing this for his companion and left him to drag the hide painfully the whole way home. When Red Star reached camp he told the old men that Bear's Belly was dragging the hide into the camp, and several of them went out to help him whenever his load got caught on anything. He did not make it to camp intil the next night.

In August of 1912, nine survivors of some forty of the Arikara Scouts met at Bear's Belly home at Armstrong on the Ft. Berthold Reservation to relate their experiences to Judge A. McG. Beede and to the secretary of the State Historical Society.

Bibliography

Libby, O.G. The Arikara Narrative of the campaign against the Hostile Dakotas, June, 1876. Rio Grande Press, Inc. Glorieta, N.M. 1976.

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.

 

 

Road Maker

, or Adi-ahus’ (Awaxawi Hidatsa ; 1764 - 1832)

He was born approximately 1764 and died at 79 years of age in 1832.

He was the son of Buffalo-hide tent

He was a member of the WaterBuster Clan and an Awaxawi Hidatsa.

Road Maker was the head chief of the Scattered Village (No. 3) (Awahmi) Mountain or East village. He was also mentioned in Clarks journal."

He was painted by the famous Karl Bodmer about 1805 when he was Chief of the Village near Knife River.

("Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page : Tribal chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara". MHA Times. vol. 7:8 , (March 1, 1996)., pp. 6.).

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.126.

 

Roan Buffalo Cow

See -- Red Buffalo Cow

Running Face
  • Mandan
In 1875, he was chosen as a delegate to represent the three tribes of the Fort Berthold Agency in Washington, D.C.  The U.S. Government was planning a war expedition into the Little Big Horn country against the Dakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho and wanted the support of the Fort Berthold tribes. Charging Eagle opposed the idea and managed to delay the expedition for a year. Others attending the meeting where: Mandan, Dance-Flag and Charging Eagle, Chas Packenau (interpreter) ; Arikara; Son-Of-Star, Bullhead, Black Fox, Peter Beauchamp (interpreter).
Rushes through the Middle
  • Mandan
  • Warrior

 
Rushing After The Eagle

SEE Charging Eagle

Rushing Bear

SEE Son of Star

Rushing Eagle

SEE Charging Eagle

 

 

--S--

 

Sakakawea

 

 

 

 

Scattered Corn
  • Mandan

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.
Sheheke
  • Mandan
  • 1765? -1832
  • Chief

 

Sheheke also known as  "Big White, Shahake or Coyote was born about 1765. He was the principle chief of the Metutahanke Mandan, who lived in the lower village, below the mouth of the Knife river on the Missouri. When the Lewis and Clark expedition came to the region of the upper Missouri in 1804, Sheheke was one of their first visitors and later helped them survive through the winter. In recognition for his help he was given a U.S. Peace Medal.  He brought them 100 pounds of meat and in return they gave him presents and an ax for his wife. Lewis & Clark were especially impressed with his vast knowledge of the geography of the region.  At one point Sheheke presented Clark with a sketch of the country between the Mandan villages and the Black Hills, which included the Yellowstone River region.  After Lewis & Clark returned from the Pacific coast, they tried to encouraged the chiefs to come East with them and see the wonders of "White" civilization and meet with the President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. Sheheke agreed to go if his family could go. His decision to go surprised his people, fearing that they would not see them again created an emotional event. The party reached the newly constructed Fort Bellefontaine, a short distance from St. Louis on September 22, 1806. Sheheke and his family were taken to the post store and out-fitted with "whiteman's" clothes. The party stayed in St. Louis until October when they departed for Washington D.C. During their journey a delegation of Osage chiefs joined the party and traveled with them as far as Kentucky. Sheheke and the party arrived in Washington on December 28, 1806.

When they arrived in Washington the party was invited by President Jefferson to Monticello. Sheheke remained in Washington for about a month attending many state functions and dinners. During his tour of Philadelphia, a portrait was made with a physiotrace by the artist Charles B. J. Fevret de St. Memin, the original of which belongs to the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia.

Sheheke began his journey home and departed from St. Louis in May of 1807. In an attempt to cut costs, the government assigned a small escort party led by Ensign Nathaniel Pryor, 14 soldiers, and 34 traders with the promise of Mandan trade. Sheheke wasn't satisfied with his escort and waited to be accompanied by a delegation of Dakota chiefs also returning from Washington. The expedition reached the lower Arikara village on September 9, 1807 and found the Arikara and Dakota tribes at war with the Mandan. Pryor held a council with Arikara Chief Gray Eyes and presented him with a peace medal, but this was not enough to pacify the Arikara chief. The party made a hasty retreat back to the boat and headed for the upper Arikara village. The warriors of the lower village followed and met them at the upper village. Gray Eyes demanded that traders stay and trade, and Sheheke be left as a prisoner. When Pryor refused, Gray Eyes threw the peace medal into the sand and the warriors opened fire on the soldiers. Pryor retreated downstream followed by the Warriors. The Party lost three men and several others were wounded. Sheheke and the expedition returned to St., Louis and stayed there until the spring of 1808.

In May 1809, a second expedition of 150 traders enlisted as militiamen from the Missouri Fur Co. and succeeded in returning Sheheke to his people on September 24, 1809. After Sheheke returned, he soon fell into disgrace among his own people, because of the extravagant tales of the East and his refusal to give away the presents that he had returned with from the Americans. In 1832 Sheheke was killed in battle fighting the Dakota. Sheheke's wife's name was Yellow Corn, his son was White Painted House, his Grandson was Tobacco, and his great-grandson was Gun that Guards the House, who still had Sheheke’s 1797 United States Peace Medal.

 

Simpson, Albert H.
  • Arikara
  • 1888
  • Tribal Chairman, 1940-42

Albert Simpson was born to White Breast in 1888.

his uncle, Thos. H. Suckley, or Kawhat, whose Indian name was Bow Legs were two of the first nine Fort Berthold students to attend Hampton Institute. Alberts' stepfather's name was George Wilde. Simpson

attended the government school at Fort Stevenson for five years and Fort Berthold for two years. He was sent to Hampton in 1898 and left in 1901. He graduated from Carlisle School in 1907. He enrolled in the business department at Haskell Institute, Kansas from 1907 to 1909. He 1911 he was appointed postmaster at Elbowoods, North Dakota and in 1914 he was a blacksmith and farmer. ~D History Journal of the Northern Plains, 1994, Vol.61, No.2., pp.20-33).

Albert Simpson served on the Tribal Business committee from 1940 to 1942.

June 1898-June 1901. Albert graduated from Carlsile in
 1907 and continued his education at Haskell Institute.
 Blacksmith, postmaster, farmer and Assistant County
 Assessor in Elbowoods, ND. Albert later became an Arikara
 Chief.
 

 

Source:

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.140.

Brudvig, Jon L. Ph.D. Hampton Normal & Agricultural Institutes American Indian Students, 1878-1923 / Compiled and edited from American Indian student files held in the archives of Hampton University in Hampton, Virginia.. c1994, 1996.
Original location: http://www.umary.edu/~jlbrud/Hampton/HUINDBIO.htm

 

Sitting Bear
  • Arikara
  • 1844-1881
  • Chief

Also called Ku'nu'h-tiwit

Sitting Bear was born in 1844. He was raised west of the Missouri near Washburn, North Dakota. In 1862 he had his first taste of war against an Assinibion whom his party encountered. A year later year while out hunting near Ft. Berthold his party was surrounded by Sioux, and was the first to strike one of the enemies horses. In 1863 Sitting Bear took a wife. Throughout his life he participated in twelve battles, led six war expeditions, two of which were into enemy territory. The other battles occurred while defending his village from Sioux attacks. On his first War expedition as a chief he led his party down the Missouri river in bull-boats. They traveled at night and hid during the day. After nine days they came upon a Sioux camp. While waited for the right time to attacked a woman came to the river for water and saw them. They killed the woman but in the process the camp was alerted and a fight broke out. Sitting Bear and his party made their escape and returned safely back to their village. Sitting Bear's second excursion into enemy country was with a combined party of Hidatsa, Mandan and Arikara. They raided a Sioux camp and Sitting Bear captured five horses. The return trip took six days. Sitting Bear counted a first coup in a fight near Ft. Berthold, being the first Arikara to strike one of the enemy, although a Hidatsa had already counted coup on him. he married at nineteen, and like his father and grandfather he became the tribal chief. (Curtis, Edward S., The North American Indian. Johnson Reprint Corporation. New York. 1980.)

"Sitting Bear was next in line as Headman. His father was Son of Star. He was born in 1839 and died in 1881" . "Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page : Tribal chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara". MHA Times. vol. 7:9 , (March 8, 1996)., pp. 7.).

"Floyd Bear or Floyd Sitting Bear then assumed the Chieftainship upon the death of his father, Sitting Bear". ("Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page : Tribal chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara". MHA Times. vol. 7:9 , (March 8, 1996)., pp. 7.).

Sitting Bear, Hilda: Arikara (Fort Berthold, ND)
 Daughter of Sitting Bear, the Arikara head chief.
 October 1897-October 1900. Hilda continued her
 education at Haskell Institute. Died in April 1908.

He was also an Indian Court Judge at the beginning of the reservation period at Fort Berthold.

 

Sources:

Bowers, Alfred W.  Hidatsa social and ceremonial organization. 9; U.S. Government Printing Office, c1965.

 

 

 

Sources:

Brudvig, Jon L.  Ph.D.  Hampton Normal & Agricultural Institutes American Indian Students, 1878-1923 / Compiled and edited from American Indian student files held in the archives of Hampton University in Hampton, Virginia..  c1994, 1996.  
Original location: http://www.umary.edu/~jlbrud/Hampton/HUINDBIO.htm

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.

Sitting Crow, Henry

, (Mandan)

"Henry Sitting Crow became leader of the remaining Mandan people, the Nuitadi Band during the early 1900’s. His descendant and the family name are still present on the Fort Berthold Reservation." ("Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page : Tribal chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara". MHA Times. vol. 7:8 , (March 1, 1996)., pp. 6.).
Sitting Owl
  • Hidatsa

Born 1847. Went on his first war excursion at seventeen, and at twenty four led a war-party against the Sioux. He struck first coup three times. On one occasion he fasted six days and six nights. Sitting Owl has taken part in many bull-boat raids on the Sioux; he says, "The Missouri river was like a road to me."

 

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.

Skunk
  • Arikara
  • -
  • Chief

 

He was one of the Chiefs representing and signing the Arikara  Treaty of 1825 (also called the Atkinson & O'Fallon Trade Treaty) with representatives of the United States. Others present:  Bloody Hand, Little Bear, Fool Chief, Chief That Is Afraid and Bad Bear along with a number of warriors. In this treaty, the Arikara acknowledged the supremacy of the United States, which in turn promised them its protection. The Arikara  agreed not to trade with anyone but authorized American citizens and to use United States law to handle injury of American citizens by Indians and vice versa.
Smoked Lodge
  • Hidatsa
  • b. ca. 1800-

 

"He was Hidatsa. He signed the treaty of 1825."

Small Ankle

, (Hidatsa)

Small Ankle had two wives; Red Blossom and Strikes-many-women. Small Ankle's children were Bear's Tail, Wolf Chief, Buffalo Bird Woman, Flies Low, Red Kettle, and Full Heart. (Goodbird, Edward. Goodbird the Indian: His Story. Minnesota Historical Society Press; St. Paul, c1985.)

Buffalo Bird Woman's Garden Recounted by Maxi'diwiac (Buffalo Bird Woman) of the Hidatsa Indian Tribe (ca.1839-1932) Originally published as Agriculture of the Hidatsa Indians: An Indian Interpretation by Gilbert Livingstone Wilson (1868-1930). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1917. (Ph. D. Thesis).  http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/buffalo/garden/garden.html

 

Soldier

, (Arikara ; 1831-)

Soldier was born in the winter of 1831 to Bear's Arm and Assiniboin Woman. His people lived in Dog Chief's village across the coulee from the village of the Easterners on the west bank of

the Missouri river. These villages today are referred to as the Grand River Villages. The following spring both Arikara villages travel south to be close to their relatives the Pawnees in the area called the Broad River. They stayed with the Pawnees for three years. In the winter of 1836, Soldier's people began their journey back to their own lands. It was on this journey that Soldier saw his first "White Man". That fall the villages spent the winter at Painted Butte across the Yellowstone river. In the spring of 1837 they returned to the Missouri and spent the summer hunting with the Hidatsa at the Knife River Villages. That Fall the Arikara left and moved to the west side of the Missouri River near Washburn. It was at this time, that the Small-pox epidemic of 1837

struck the Arikara. On the way a delegation of Osage chiefs joined the party and traveled with them as far as Kentucky. Shahaka and the party arrived in Washington on December 28, 1806. Opon their arrival to Washington the party was invited By President Jefferson to Monticello. He remained in Washington for about a month attending many state functions and dinners. During his tour of Philadelphia, a portrait was made with a physiotrace by the artist Charles B. J. Fevret de St. Memin, the original of which belongs to the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia.

Shahaka began his journey home from St. Louis in May 1807. In an attempt to cut costs, the government assigned a small escort party led by Ensign Nathaniel Pryor, 14 soldiers, and 34 traders with the promise of Mandan trade. Shahaka wasn't satisfied with his escort and waited to be accompanied by a delegation of Dakota chiefs also returning from Washington. The expedition reached the lower Arikara village on September 9, 1807 and found the Arikara and Dakota at war with the Mandan. Pryor held a council with chief Gray Eyes and presented him with a peace medal, but this was not enough to pacify the Arikara chief. The party made a hasty retreat back to the boat and headed for the upper Arikara village. The warriors of the lower village followed and met them at the upper village. Gray Eyes demanded that traders stay and trade, and that Shahaka be left as a prisoner. When Pryor refused, Gray Eyes threw the peace medal into the sand and the warriors opened fire on the soldiers. Pryor retreated downstream followed by the Warriors. Three were killed and several other where wounded. Shahaka and the expedition returned to St., Louis and stayed there until the spring of 1808.

In May 1809, A second expedition of 150 traders enlisted as militiamen from the Missouri Fur Co. succeeded in returning Shahaka to his people on September 24, 1809. After Shahaka returned he soon fell into disgrace among his people, because of the extravagant tales of the East and his refusal to give away the presents that he had received in the east. He later died in battle with the Dakota in 1832. Shahaka's wife's name was Yellow Corn, his son was White Painted House, his Grandson was Tobacco, and his Great-Grandson was Gun that Guards the House, who still had his 1797 U.S. Peace Medal.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Hodge, Frederick W., Handbook of American Indians. Rowan and Littlefield. Totowa, New Jersey. 1979.

Foley, William E. and Rice, Charles D. "The Return of the Mandan Chief. " V. 29:3. July 1979. Montana: The Magazine of Western History.

 

Son of Star

, (Arikara ; 1815-1881)

Also known as Star Man, Son of the Starry Robe. and Rushing Bear.

Married Red Eagle and would raise a family of five sons and a daughter.

Second chief of the Arikara in 1867 to White Shield

"In the summer 1868, Son of Star, Chief of the Arikara Nation left his people to visit his relatives, the Pawnee Indians in Nebraska. Before leaving he named as representative and possible successor, his favorite son Swift Runner. Swift Runner was a young man anxious to follow in the footsteps of his father, who was almost worshipped by his tribe."(from Arikara Indians : Uni. of South Dakota, c1941, educational series, vol. 1)

Diplomatic (Like a Fishhook Village U.S. Dept. of Interior Washington. D.C., 1972)

"Son of Star, also known as Rushing Bear served as Principle Chief during the hostile campaign period. He was born in 1815 and died in 1881. ("Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page : Tribal chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara". MHA Times. vol. 7:8 , (March 1, 1996)., pp. 6.).

In 1875, he was chosen as a delegate to represent the three tribes of the Fort Berthold Agency in Washington, D.C.  The U.S. Government was planning a war expedition into the Little Big Horn country against the Dakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho and wanted the support of the Fort Berthold tribes. Charging Eagle opposed the idea and managed to delay the expedition for a year. Others attending the meeting where: Mandan, Dance-Flag, Running Face, and Charging Eagle, Chas Packenau (interpreter) ; Arikara; Son-Of-Star, Bullhead, Black Fox, Peter Beauchamp (interpreter).

Portrait in Biographical dictionary of the Indians V.2

 

Spotted Bear, Alyce
  •  
  • Mandan/Hidatsa
  • Chairwoman (1982 - 1986)

 

Transcript
Chiefs and Leaders
Alyce Spotted Bear
Chief Woman
My name is Alyce Spotted Bear. And my Indian name is Nemuk Shemehat and that was given to me by my clan mother, Jesse Bull. And that means "shows-the-way woman," and a male translation is "chief woman."

 

Spotted Bear, second woman to be elected to the tribal council, attended the Stephan Indian Mission School in South Dakota during her elementary and secondary years. She then earned a BS in Education at Dickinson State College and an M.Ed. At Pennsylvania State University. Prior to being elected Tribal Chairman, Spotted bear worked in education for the tribe and held the position of Personnel Administrator within the tribal government.

The 37 year-old chairman lead governmental reform through a constitutional revision that reasserted the Tribal Business Council's authority to exercise jurisdictions over the reservation and people. During her administration, a resolution was passed making tribal scholarship monies available to students attending the Fort Berthold Community College and giving graduates preference in hiring. Her administration initiated the move for just compensation for lands which the Three Affiliated Tribes lost to construction of the Garrison Dam, ultimately resulting in the tribe being congressionally awarded compensation of $149.2 million. Spotted Bear's administration spearheaded the passage of the Mineral Restoration Act, by which Congress returned to the tribe minerals taken from them when tribal lands were flooded under the 1944 Flood Control Act.

During Spotted Bear's administration, the Three Affiliated Tribes was one of the leading tribes in the nation in the area of environmental concerns. The tribe monitored its ground water, air quality, and began a reservation-wide, solid waste removal program. The tribe also developed a municipal, rural, and industrial water (MR&I) system plan for which they ultimately received funding. The tribe received favorable rulings in two United States Supreme Court cases.

Spotted Bear then initiated the tribe's Buffalo Project, which today comprises a herd of nearly 400. Spotted Bear is a Visiting Scholar in Residence at Dartmouth College for the 1997 Winter Term. She is working on her dissertation for a doctorate degree from Cornell University. (Spotted Bear, 1997). Photo courtesy of Mahar Photography, Williston, ND.

 

Spotted Bull
  • Mandan

 

 

 

 

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.

Star
  • Arikara
  • b. ca.1790
  • Chief

Star or Stán-au-pator (Also referred to as Bloody Hand) was an Arikara Chief.  He was one of the Chiefs representing and signing the Arikara  Treaty of 1825 (also called the Atkinson & O'Fallon Trade Treaty) with representatives of the United States. Others present:  Little Bear, Skunk, Fool Chief, Chief That Is Afraid and Bad Bear along with a number of warriors. In this treaty the Arikara acknowledged the supremacy of the United States, which in turn promised them its protection. The Arikara  agreed not to trade with anyone but authorized American citizens the use of United States law to handle injury of American citizens by Indians and vice versa.   In 1832,  Star, his wife Twin, and his daughter Sweet-Scented Grass were painted by the famed American artist, George Catlin.  His son who's name was  Son-Of-Star would also become a Chief of the Arikara.

 

Sweet-Scented Grass
  • Arikara
  • b. 1820

 

Sweet-Scented Grass or Pshán-shaw,  the daughter of Chief Star.  She was the subject of a painting by artist George Catlin in 1832.

 

 

 

--T--

 

Twin
  • Arikara

Twin or Kah-béck-a was the wife of Arikara Chief Star who in 1832 was painted by the artist, George Catlin.

Two Crows

SEE Two Ravens

Two Ravens
  • Hidatsa
  • b. ca. 1890
  • Chief

"Two Ravens or Two Crow was headman of the Dog Soldier and Blackmouth Societies. The Blackmouths served as the police force within the Hidatsa Nation and was the subject of the famous painting by the artist George Catlin. His time of influence was the early to mid 1800’s"

("Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page : Tribal chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara". MHA Times. vol. 7:8 , (March 1, 1996)., pp. 6.).

His wife was also the subject of  a George Catlin painting in 1832, but he doesn't give her name.

 

   

 

--W--

 

Wahata-Uh
  • Arikara
"Grandfather. Your talk is very good. My ears and the ears of my people have not been on the ground, they have been open and we feel good in our hearts at what you have told us . The ground is not now as it used to be. We come here from a long way off from the Missouri River. We come hungry for we are very poor and could find no buffalo, but we found friends and they gave us something to eat. This made our hearts glad. We are poor and we live far away; but we will do the best we can to satisfy our Grand Father. We hope he will send us more buffalo."
Words of WAHATA-UH, an Arikara Chief
Treaty Grounds near Fort Laramie, L.T.
September 8th, 1851
The Missouri Republican

 

 

War Eagle

SEE Charging Eagle

Wells, Ralph Jr.

Sahnish

Sept.1970 - Dec.1971.

Ralph Wells Jr. was born August 15, 1908 at Elbowoods, ND, the son of Polk and Ralph Wells Sr. He grew up at Lucky Mound and was educated at Elbowoods at the Congregational Mission. He attended school at Santee, NE and Flandreau, SD. He married Olive Sherwood in 1926 and farmed and ranched southwest of Raub prior to becoming active in reservation politics.

He served five terms on the Tribal Business Council, serving as treasurer, secretary, and Tribal Chairman.

He was an outstanding drummer and speaker. He died while still chairman of the tribe at the age of 62.

He was well respected for his work in preserving the heritage and culture of his people. (100 years at Fort

Berthold).

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.143.

 

White Breast
  • Arikara

  • b.  d.1888

  • Chief

 

White Duck
  • Hidatsa

WHITE DUCK 'Mina-kish"-Hidatsa-Portrait Facing Page 144

Born 1857. He was seventeen years of age when he first fought against the Sioux, and was three times on the war-path. At the age of twenty-five, accompanying as Apsaroke war-party, he killed a Blackfoot. He fasted four times, two days each time.

 

 

Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952.  The North American Indian, being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska.  New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1970, c1907-30], p.

White Shield
  • Arikara

  • 1798 -- 1878

  • Chief

 

 

 

 

Chief White Shield (Nah T Asuútaáka’)

Born in 1798, died in 1878


Much is known of White Shield I, who became chief in 1866. His name is remembered in many stories and in the historical record. Born in 1798 when the Sahnish lived in the Grand River Villages in what is now South Dakota, he recalled seeing the Lewis and Clark expedition at age six, when they stopped at the Sahnish village in the fall of 1804.

When he grew to manhood, he married Ka-wit. They had three children. Two daughters, Smoke/Tobacco Woman and Yellow Calf Woman, who died as a child, They also had a son named Comet who also died as a child.

He would not pose for a painting so Regis de Trobriand drew him on the sly. Described as not a handsome man. He had long black hair, large mouth and thin lips. He was average height. Thin and nervous. He had a lined face, his body painted blue with white and red strips, which twisted on his chest and go down the length of his arms. He was wrapped in a blanket, which covered his left shoulder. He seemed to scorn ornament as adding nothing to his dignity. He had neither necklace, bracelets, plumes, nor shells in his hair. He was what he was and that was enough for him.

He again faced United States Army Captain William Clark as a young man in 1824. Clark had written to the President of the United States asking permission to ‘annihilate the Arikara’ with help from the Dakota, if they did not sign the 1825 treaty. He spoke on behalf of his people and disaster was averted.

After the treaty of 1851, White Shield was asked to share the new head chiefship with War Chief Iron Bear. He was chosen because of his wisdom, eloquence, bravery, honesty and his strong desire to help his people. The Sahnish people were satisfied with the new Head Chief. They knew him as a fierce warrior and a strong-hearted leader, when he went on the warpath to right a wrong done to Sahnish. When Chief Iron Bear died in 1867 White Shield I became sole head chief of the Arikara people. White Shield School, founded in 1952, is named after White Shield I and his great grand daughter, Margaret Breuer.

Rhoda Starr – Sahnish Historian

His reputation, as a humble man and an outspoken, and strong leader, continued throughout his life. Read other stories told by the elders of his life speaking out against Broken Promises in 1857 and the Sioux Battle of 1869.

 

 

Also called White Parefleche

Physical Description: not very handsome, eyes are small but keen, nose is strongly aquiline, his large thin mouth has scarcely any lips, and his large protruding chin juts up before his nose, he is of average height, thin and nervous, scorned body ornaments but uses body paint.

Led his people to Ft. Berthold to establish a village at Expansion. To be closer to the trading post that was moved from Ft. Clark.

In 1864 spoke addressed the great father on the unhappy position of the 3 tribes ?Father Desmet.

Refused to sign for annuities because all of the graft that occurred from the traders. They stole what they could and gave the worst to the Indians. He was removed from the list of chiefs and denied his $200.00 Chief's annuity. and replaced as chief by a young man.

Signed the 1886 Agreement as White Shield.

Described by William Courtnenay as an old man, straightforward, truthful, with a great deal of practical sense: 1880.

White Shield's Son in law was Peter Beachamp, Trader and Interpreter.

June 6, 1869, during a battle with the Sioux, he rode out between the hostile lines and shouted "I am old. my teeth are bad. I cant eat corn. I am ready to die, will my enemy meet me will my enemy come"

The earliest recorded Chief was White Shield with Star or Old Star as second chief. The Arikara were also victims of incredibly corrupt traders and Government officials who upon receiving annuities meant for the Ree, would hold off the distribution of the goods until they had opened the boxes, taken dry goods to sell through their trading posts and substitute condemned flour from the trader’s stock for fresh flour and so fourth. When White Shield refused to sign for annuities, Agent Mahlon Wilkinson be infuriated and declared White Shield deposed from his chieftainship. He told White Shield that "he was getting too old. Age troubles your brain and you talk and act like an old fool." White Shield replied, "I am old it is true, butt not so old as to not see things as they are, And even if, as you say, I were only an old fool, I would prefer a hundred times to be an honest fool than a stealing rascal like you". "Three Affiliated Tribes Cultural Page : Tribal chiefs of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara". MHA Times. vol. 7:8 , (March 1, 1996)., pp. 7

Sources:

Like a Fishhook Village. U.S. Dept. of Interior. Washington, D.C. 1972.

Libby, O.G., The Arikara Narrative of the Campaign against the Hostile Dakotas, June, 1876. Rio Grande Press, Inc. Glorieta, N.M. 1976.

"Chief White Shield (Nah T Asuútaáka’)", Grand Forks, N.D.: NatureShift!. a program of the Dakota Science Center & Grand Forks Public Schools, c1998-2003.  found at: http://www.natureshift.org/Whawk/resource/whiteshield.html

 

 

 

White Shield II

SEE Harry Gillette

Wilkinson, Wilber D.

Sahnish/Hidatsa

Oct.1990 - 1994

Wilbur Wilkinson was born on October 12, 1948 to Ernest and Molly Wolf Wilkinson. He is a descendant of Spotted Tail and Wolf Lies Down. His fraternal grandfather was Mahlon Wilkinson, the first permanent Indian Agent at Fort Berthold. His father was "One Horn," Fort Berthold Indian agent who signed the treaties. His maternal grandfather was David Wolf, the first tribal judge at Fort Berthold. He is a member of the Flint Knife Clan, three Clans, and four Clans.

He attended Haskell Junior, North Eastern University at Tahlequah, OK., and the University of Oklahoma,

Norman. He was employed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs at New Town as credit officer, a contract

specialist at Sisseton, and administrative officer and superintendent at the Crow Creek Reservation, S.D.

He was also administrative manager of the Tohono Oodham, Papago, AZ, superintendent at Tuba City,

AZ and assistant area director of Window Rock Agency, Window Rock, AZ.

He was elected to the Council and chair of the tribe serving from 1990 through 1994.

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.146.

 

Whitman, Carl

Mandan/Hidatsa

Sept.1948 - Aug.1950

Nov.1956 - Aug.1958

Sept.1962 - Aug.1964

Carl Whitman was born near Elbowoods, but was sent to a government boarding school.

He attended Wahpeton State School of Science, majoring in Business Administration. He ranched and participated in rodeos south of Parshall near Lucky Mountain. He worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs at Elbowoods.

In 1948, at the age of 35, he was elected Chairman of the Three Affiliated Tribes, serving from 1948 to 1950. From 1950 to 1956, he served on the Tribal Business Committee, and in 1956, he was re-elected as tribal chairperson. In 1962, he ran again and was elected for a third term as tribal chairperson.

He served as president of the National Congress of American Indians, advisory board member of the Greater North Dakota Association, member of the North Dakota Economic Development Commission, the North Dakota Governor's Manpower Commission, the Advisory Committee of the North Dakota Stockman's Association and a three-term past president of the Greater Lake Sakakawea Association. ("Whitman to," 1963). He was involved in the formation of United Tribes Development Corporation, served as it's secretary, and Executive director. After his formally left tribal government, he worked as a teacher at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, and field coordinator for its Vista Program.

He retired from public life in 1981 and became a spiritual leader, participating for five years at the Rosebud Sun Dance and starting the Mandan Okipa Ceremony. He spoke Mandan and learned Hidatsa as a second language. ("Fort Berthold loses", Salter, 1996).

Whitman died in 1994. Photo courtesy of the Carl Whitman Family.

The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002, p.141.

Wolf Chief

, (Hidatsa ; 1850 - 1933)

Wolf Chief was born in 1850. His father was Small Ankle, one of the more respected medicine men and owner of the Water Buster, Eagle Trapping, and Wolf Bundles. His maternal grandfather was Big Cloud also a great medicine man who was a great influence on him as a young man. Wolf Chief was a member of the Prairie Chicken Clan and as a boy his name was He Comes. When Wolf Chief was a teenager he wasn't considered an ideal young man. Instead of fasting or hunting to develop the needed skills to succeed as a warrior he would hang around the village dressed in his best cloths and chase the girls.

When Wolf Chief was 16 he got his first chance to go on a war-party led by one of his Grandfather's Wolf's Eyes. Small Ankle refused to let him go because he had not yet fasted to receive any visions that would protect him against enemies. Wolf Chief went anyway and crept out of the lodge during the night and joined the war-party while they prayed and smoked the pipe outside of the village. He was appointed as the water-carrier, which was a very special honor for a young man. The war-party traveled East into the territory of the Devil's Lake Sioux. As they approached they were spotted. Outnumbered they returned traveling 50 miles on foot in one night. When they returned to the village Wolf Eyes brought Wolf Chief home and explained to Small Ankle that his son was very brave and he should be proud of him.

After this experience Wolf Chief realized that there was allot more to warfare than he thought. So he sought to obtain super-natural protection by fasting, praying, and participating in the Sun Dance. Wolf Chief prayed in the woods every night for four months seeking a vision that would give him a spiritual protector. Finally he had his vision and was confident that he could be lucky in war and live to be an old man. In 1858, he won his first war honors by being one of the first to attack an invading Dakota war-party and had his horse shot out from under him, an added honor. That night he danced in the victory dance.

After gaining his first war honors Wolf Chief was to be considered a man and entitled to take a wife. Throughout his life he had 26 wives and many children. His first wife was Different Snake, whom he found out he didn't love and left the village until she had left his lodge. While he was gone he met Brown Blossom, and formally married her by having the families exchange gifts. But during the Walking Ceremony she ran away so he married Iron Woman instead. Wolf Chief later became one of the principle Chiefs and had three wives at one time. The youngest wife was very pretty but liked by Two Tails, a younger man of the village. Instead of taking his anger out on Two Tails and provoking ridicule he formed a war-party and raided the Dakota. He brought back many horses and challenged Two Tails to do the same. This rivalry kept up until the tribal leaders saw a confrontation in the making and sent the Pipe-Carriers to have to the two smoke the pipe and make peace with each other, and it was so.

The 1880's were a peaceful time for the three tribes living at Fort Berthold. In 1880, Wolf Chief acquired the sacred Wolf bundle for seeing into the future when leading war parties, but by this time warfare had almost ended because of the establishment of forts by the U.S. Government. The threat of epidemics had ceased and the tribes started to grow and prosper. The people of the three tribes were beginning to adjust to reservation life and where learning the ways of the "whiteman". Wolf Chief was learning to read and write and used this new skill to inform the U.S. government officials in Washington, D.C. about the unscrupulous ways of agency officials and traders. At first his letters were dismissed as illiterate rambling complaints, but later made the Agency officials realize that the corruption would not continue unheard. By 1885 Wolf Chief and his followers left Like-a-Fishhook village and established the Lone Hill Community or as it was later called Independence.

 

In December of 1889 he opened Wolf Chief's Store for business at Independence. At first the reservation agent tried to close his store because he sold beads and other items that were used in making things related to native culture. Wolf Chief had to quit selling these under pressure from the Agency and reservation clergy. He brought competition and honesty to the reservation's established government traders, and gave the Native people one of their own whom they could buy from.

In 1906 Wolf Chief was baptized as Henry Wolf Chief and soon played a major role in the raising of money for a church in the community. They raised $1000.00 and began to build on 10 acres of land that Wolf Chief had given to the church.

After the death of Small Ankle(Wolf Chief's father), Wolf Chief became the custodian of the Water Buster Shrine, even though he wasn't of the Water Buster Clan and was now a Christian. Wolf Chief went to all of the members of the Water Buster Clan and asked them to take charge of this sacred bundle, but everyone was either to scared of the responsibility or the U.S. government to accept this honor. Wolf Chief even thought of burying the bundle, but out of respect for his father and the power of the bundle he decided against it. This was a great dilemma for Wolf Chief and needed a quick solution. Wolf Chief finally agreed to sell the shrine to the wealthy George Heye of New York.

From 1923 to 1932 Wolf Chief, Goodbird, and Crow's Heart worked with Dr. Albert Bowers as consultants doing an ethnological study of the Hidatsa. Their contribution gave later generations the opportunity to look into the past with pride and see their culture through the eyes of one of their people.

 

Wolf Chief died in June of 1933 during one of the worst droughts recorded in the western United States. After his death the Water Buster Clan petitioned the Museum of the American Indian to return the Water Buster Shrine. Reluctantly they did and as soon as it was returned rain fell drenching the country of Wolf Chief.

"My uncle Wolf Chief says of the Christian way: 'I traveled faithfully the way of the Indian gods, but they never helped me. When I was sick, I prayed to them, but they did not make me well. I prayed to them when my children died; but they did not answer me. I have but two children left, and I am going to trust to [the Chrisitan] God to keep these that they do not die." [But Wolf Chief's last surviving child, who was in college, died about the time Goodbird's first grandchild was born.] For Wolf Chief, and perhaps others, the tragedies whose ultimate cause was the white man, were laid against the old religion, which may have been killed as much that way -- people perceiving failures of spiritual powers against things done or caused by the white man -- as by the more overt surpressions and Christian proseletyzing that were going on.

Still, some of the old ways come through. They want to build a better chapel instead of the log cabin. They take up a subscription among themselves, buy lumber. "Wolf Chief wanted to give us the land for our chapel, but the Indian commissioner wrote 'No, you may sell your land but you must not give it away.' So we bought the land for a dollar an acre; but Wolf Chief gave the money back to us, outwitting the commissioner after all!"

 

 

 

 

Meyer, Roy Willard, 1925- The Village Indians of the Upper Missouri: The Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras. : Uni. of Nebraska Press, c1977.

 

   

--Y--

Yellow Owl
  • Mandan

Young Eagle Chosen
  • Arikara
  • b. late 1700's

Young Eagle Chosen or pi’aáts tawiíA was born in the late 1700's probably in the western Grand River Arikara village.  As a young man he was chosen to be one of three Arikara delegates that signed the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty. The other delegates were Mad Bear and  Bear Chief.  His other names in literature include Bi-atch-tah-wetch, and Grey Prairie Eagle.

   

 

 

Bibliography

Bowers, Alfred W.  Mandan social and ceremonial organization  Uni. of Chicago Press, 1950.

 

    The history and culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, Sahnish (ARIKARA) / North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.. Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, c2002.
  Bowers, Alfred W. Hidatsa social and ceremonial organization. 9; U.S. Government Printing Office, c1965.
  Bowers, Alfred W. Mandan social and ceremonial organization  Uni. of Chicago Press, 1950.
 
   
Corps of Discovery - Preparing for the Trip West "Peace Medals" (n.d.). Retrieved June 13, 2003, from http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/CorpsOfDiscovery/Preparing
/PeaceMedals/PeaceMedals.htm
 
  Gilman, Carolyn, 1954- The way to independence : memories of a Hidatsa Indian family, 1840-1920. Minnesota Historical Society Press: St. Paul, c1987.
  Goodbird, Edward.  Goodbird the Indian : his story. Minnesota Society Press; St. Paul, c1985.
  Jackson, Donald ed, "Journey to the Mandans; 1809, the Last Narrative of dr. Thomas.• Missouri Historical Society "Bulletin". 20:3, April 1964.
  Gary E. Moulton, editor. The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition /  Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, c1983-
  Libby, Orin Grant, 1864-1952, ed. The Arikara narrative of the campaign against the hostile Dakotas, June, 1876.  Bismarck, N.D. : North Dakota Historical Society, 1920.
  Meyer, Roy Willard, 1925- The village Indians of the upper Missouri : the Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras / by Roy W. Meyer. #9; : Uni. of Nebraska Press, c1977
  Nestor, William R., 1956- The Arikara War : the first Plains Indian war, 1823 / William R. Nester. Missoula, Mont. : Mountain Press Pub. Co., 2001.